Two computers connected by a wire form a network.
In 1954, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) presented the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.
Computers must use a common protocol to communicate properly.
Peer communication allows error checking to occur on two separate layers simultaneously.
Many LANs and WANs contain several segments. Dividing a network into segments reduces performance.
The number of nodes on a network and the length of cable used influence the quality of communication on the network.
Repeaters and hubs reformat data structures, so they can connect networks that require different types of frames.
The IEEE standard for WLANs use unlicensed, but not unregulated, radio frequencies.
Bridges operate at the Network layer of the OSI model.
Like bridges, switches operate at the Network layer of the OSI model.
The term _____ refers to the wire cabling, such as coaxial or the more commonly used twisted-pair, that form the connections in most networks.
_____ networks have computers that are servers and computers that act as clients to those servers.
A _____ is contained within a company or department and located in a single geographic area, usually a building or part of a building
A _____ spans multiple geographic areas and is usually connected by common telecommunication carriers.
The term _____ refers to the intermediate stage between a LAN and a WAN.
The term _____ refers to a series of storage devices, such as tapes, hard drives, and CDs, that are networked together to provide very fast data storage for a network or sub-network.
The part of the company's network that allows access to non employees is called the _____, which is accessed over or through the Internet.
The part of the company's network that allows access to employees is called the _____, which is completely separate from the Internet.
The seven layers of the OSI reference model communicate with one another via _____ communication.
The OSI model _____ layer defines the mechanical, electrical, and procedural events that occur during the physical transmission of electronic signals on the wire.
The _____ is information that is used to determine whether data was corrupted during transmission.
The _____ sub-layer of the Data Link layer defines how data is packaged for the network.
The _____ sub-layer of the Data Link layer defines the media access method and provides a unique identifier for the network card.
A(n) _____ address is a 48-bit address represented as a 12-digit hexadecimal number given to each network card during production.
Because the MAC address is added during the manufacturing process, it is a permanent marking. For this reason, the address is also known as a _____.
The protocols at the Network layer allow computers to route packets to remote networks using a _____ address.
_____ protocols, such as TCP, require an acknowledgement (ACK) of the receipt of data packets.
_____ protocols such as User Datagram Protocol (UDP), do not require an ACK.
Data sent by a connectionless transport is called a _____.
Each layer in a protocol stack may add a(n) _____ to the data as it is passed down the layers.
A(n) _____, which is also known as a header or a trailer, is specific information that is sent from one layer on the source computer to the same layer on the destination computer.
On analog networks, devices that boost the signal are called _____.
Devices that "see" the traffic of other devices are said to be on the same _____ as those devices.
If a single access point is available in infrastructure mode, then the mode is said to be a(n) _____.
Basic Service Set (BSS)
Typically WLANs involve multiple access points connected to various switches in the network. This type of infrastructure mode is known as a(n) _____.
Extended Service Set (ESS)
A _____ filters traffic between network segments by examining the destination MAC address.
_____ increase network performance by reducing the number of frames transmitted to the rest of the network.
Switches filter based on _____ addresses.
_____ provide filtering and network traffic control on LANs and WANs. These devices can connect multiple segments and multiple networks.
Routers operate at the _____ layer of the OSI model.
When TCP/IP is used on an internetwork, the logical address is known as a(n) _____ address.
_____ are commonly used to connect networks to the Internet.
A(n) _____ functions as both a bridge for nonroutable protocols and a router for routable protocols.
A(n) _____ is usually a combination of hardware and software. Its purpose is to translate between different protocol suites.
_____ have the most negative effect on network performance.
_____ is a network access method (or media access method) originated by the University of Hawaii.
Ethernet uses _____ to prevent data packets from colliding on the network.
A _____ is the physical area in which a frame collision might occur.
_____ Ethernet uses the same network access method (CSMA/CD) as common 10BaseT Ethernet, but provides 10 times the data transmission rate.
Fast Ethernet is defined under the IEEE _____ standard.
In _____ communications, devices can send and receive signals, but not at the same time.
In _____ communications, devices can send and receive signals simultaneously.
The term computer network, or simply _____, refers to the connection of two or more computers by some type of medium.
In a client/server network, the _____ host the resources for the clients to use and provide security.
A(n) _____ is a device that allows a computer or other device to connect to a network through the media.
A(n) _____ is a network that uses a public communications infrastructure to facilitate private communication between a company LAN and remote employees.
As the layers pass the data through the protocol stack, the addition of a header and/or trailer is called _____.
_____ usually refers to the physical layout of network cable and devices.
_____ provide cell-based areas where wireless clients such as laptops and PDAs can connect to the network by associating with the access point.
Wireless Access Point
_____ is the breaking down of a single heavily populated network segment into smaller segments, or collision domains, populated by fewer nodes.
A switch opens a(n) _____ between the source and the destination. This prevents communications between just two computers from being broadcast to every computer on the network or segment.
When machines must share a wire and compete for available bandwidth with other machines, they experience _____.