Chapter 4 - Adler's Individual Psychology

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According to Adler, Individual Psychology is a science that attempts to understand

the experiences and behavior of each person as an organized entity.

Adler's propositions emphasized that an understanding of human personality would come only if we were aware of

the goals of the individual.

Adler claimed that the final goal of all people who were moving toward psychological health was

to attain perfection or completion.

Adler believed that it was not the physical defect itself that facilitated or reduced striving but

the individual's attitude toward it.

Adler felt that women were placed generally in an inferior position by society and that they often tried to

overcome feelings of inadequacy by imitating masculine behavior.

Feelings of inferiority can be

largely constructive or destructive.

The fact that goals are necessary to give direction to our behavior, allowing us to advance and develop, and are ideals and are not tangible, refers to

fictional finalism.

A striving for a form of community that must be thought of as everlasting, as it could be thought of if mankind has reached the goal of perfection, refers to

social interest.

The unique way in which a person pursues his/her goals is called

style of life.

The concept that people are, in the final analysis, responsible for their destinies is called

creative self.

Adler believed that each child was treated uniquely by his/her parents depending on

the order of birth.

The child who would best understand the importance of power and authority would most likely be the

oldest child.

The child who would set his/her goals at unrealistically high levels, thereby virtually ensuring failure would be the

second child.

The child who tends to be excessively dependent on others for support and protection, yet who wants to excel in everything he/she does, would be the

youngest child.

In testing Adler's birth order thesis, Hudson found that

first-borns were overrepresented among world leaders, whereas middle- and last-borns were underrepresented.

Rodgers' criticizes Zajonc's model of intellectual development by arguing that

there are many variables other than birth order that could be used to explain and refute Zajonc's claim that first-borns are more developed intellectually than later-borns.

Cheating and lying may become ways of

ensuring the maintenance of the enhancement of one's personal success.

Adler maintains that the attainment of perfection involves overcoming

resistances with which the environment confronts the organism.

In Adler's view, neurotics typically

have mistaken life styles.

The position that Adler takes concerning goals is that they are

determinants of much of our behavior.

Adler's theory

has strong heuristic value.

In Adler's view, people's mental health depends primarily upon

their efforts to contribute to the betterment of their community.

In testing a large sample of young men from the Netherlands, Belmont and Marolla found that

first-borns had higher intellectual achievement tests scores than later-borns.

In their research on birth order, Wagner and Schubert showed that

oldest sons were overrepresented among U.S. Presidents.

According to most research studies, alcoholics tend to be

youngest children in families.

In recent birth order research, Melillo found that

first-borns are overrepresented among women with doctorates.

For Adler, prime examples of the ruling type were

juvenile delinquents, suicidal individuals, and drug addicts.

According to Adler, which one of the following types typically uses charms to persuade others to help them?

getting type.

According to Adler, lesbianism was an extreme manifestation of

the masculine protest.

According to Adler, the person who desires to maintain the status quo is the

first-born.

The concept that an individual's goals direct his or her current behavior is called

teleology.

A study of Ivancevich, Matteson, and Gamble on birth order shows that

first-born black and white college men and women had higher Type A scores than later-borns.

Individuals who try to accomplish more and more things in less and less time are called

Type A individuals.

In contrast to Adler's view, Falbo and Polit's research on birth order shows that

only-born children are as sociable and as psychologically well-adjusted as children from other types of families.

In Adler's view. the father in a family

must treat his wife as an equal.

In their study of birth order, Falbo and Cooper found that

mothers of preschool only children spent more time with them than did mothers with other children.

According to Steelman, the research finding that first borns are more intellectually advanced than later borns may have been produced by the confounding of the

socioeconomic status of the families.

In discussing the implications of birth order for personality development, Adler stated that

it was the unique set of experiences within the family which had important implications for development.

Adler believed that we are all born with

the potential for social interest.

In his earliest writings, Adler claimed that the final goal of our struggle was to be

aggressive and all-powerful.

According to Adler, which one of the following types typically tries to reduce feelings of anxiety by acting in anti-social ways?

ruling type.

Which one of the following types typically is self-absorbed and engages frequently in daydreaming?

avoiding type.

In Adler's view, the person most likely to be politically conservative is the

first-born.

In the Zajnoc and Markus theory of intellectual development, children's mental growth is primarily a function of the

intellectual environment in which they mature.

The belief that the individual's goals direct his or her behavior is called

teleology.

In Adler's view, all individuals' motivations

cannot occur without the perception of goals.

The theory of intellectual development created by Zajonc and Markus claims that

as the number of children in the family increases, their intellectual growth decreases.

In examining feelings of inferiority in college students, Strano and Petrocelli showed that students with

normal feelings of inferiority had the highest GPAs.

In a study on the intellectual development of youngsters, Berglund, Eriksson, and Westerlund found that

first-born Scandinavian toddlers scored higher on vocabulary comprehension and vocabulary production than later-borns.

In Adler's theory, the term "style of life" was originally called the

guiding image.

When threatened, which one of the following types tries to reduce feelings of anxiety by acting in antisocial ways?

ruling types.

Probably the chief contribution of Adler's theory is that it is

high in heuristic value.

The belief that goals determine behavior is called

teleology.

If Billy is crippled permanently in a car accident, Adler would say that it is not the physical defect itself that would facilitate or hinder his movement toward psychological health but

his attitude toward it.

In Adler's writings AFTER he severed his personal relationship with Freud, Adler assumed that human beings had strong needs

to develop their potentials for social interest.

The youngest child

is excessively dependent on others for support and protection.

The person with a strong social interest is very likely to be

empathic.

Adler believed that a boy raised in a family of girls is likely to develop

a masculine or feminine orientation.

Adler maintained that dreams

provide us with glimpses into the future.

Sulloway, in studying birth order, finds that, throughout history

later-borns are more likely than first-borns to engage in rebellious acts.

The ruling, getting and avoiding types are examples of ____________________ lifestyles.

unhealthy

Adler believed that dreams reflect the individual's unconscious attempt to achieve personal ____________________ in accordance with his or her unique style of life.

goals

Dreams provide glimpses of the future, and thus suggest potential ____________________ to the person's problems.

solutions

Adler believed that when children became highly anxious and insecure, they develop protective devices -- most often, a strong striving for personal ____________________ .

superiority

Through therapy, the patient moves toward a(n) ____________________ of perceptions and begins to behave differently toward others.

reorganization

Research indicates that ____________________ are overrepresented among college students, graduate students, and university faculty.

first-borns

It is not the defect itself that produces striving in the individual, but rather the person's ____________________ toward the defect that produces the striving.

attitude

A constructive lifestyle produces a(n) ____________________ type.

socially useful

For Adler, dreams provided a(n) ____________________ of the future.

glimpse

The biological potential to cooperate and live in harmony with others in order to establish a productive society is called ____________________.

social interest

True or False
For Adler, an understanding of human personality was possible only if you could understand the person's goals.

True

True or False
The striving for personal superiority by people is healthy.

False

True or False
The development of healthy or unhealthy goals is shaped to a considerable extent by experiences in the first five years of life.

True

True or False
Adler proposed that there is a creative evolution in all things that aims at the goal of personal superiority.

False

True or False
The youngest child understands best the importance of power and authority.

False

True or False
Last-borns are overrepresented among college students, scientists, and eminent people in science and government.

False

True or False
First-borns have higher Type A personality test scores than later-borns.

True

True or False
Social interest is most likely to develop in authoritarian families.

False

True or False
Avoiding types create fantasies in which they are always superior.

True

True or False
Generally, the concepts in Adler's theory are very well-defined.

False

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