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osteoclast

dissolve bone, put calcium into the blood

osteoblast

build bone, remove calcium and phosphates from the blood

osteocyte

mature cells find within compact bone, strengthens bone

diaphysis

shaft

epiphysis

end of bone (red marrow)

medullary cavity

yellow marrow

epiphyseal plate

between diaphysis and epiphysis (growth plate)

axial skeleton

head, neck, torso

appendicular skeleton

appendeges

functions of bones

support, movement, protection, mineral storage, blood cell synthesis (hematopoiesis)

bone growth

1. cartilage cells grow
2. periosteum forms (cartilage decomposes)
3. blood vessels invade and osteoblasts build spongy, then compact bone
4. osteoblasts become osteocytes when bony matrix surrounds them
5. epiphyseal plate remains btw. diaphysis and epiphysis, and epiphysis begins to ossify

dwarfism

growth hormone deficiency

giantism

abnormally large growth plate

osteoporosis

thinning of bones

rickets

softening of bone tissue

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