Psychology chp 3

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Test bank chapter 3

As members of the human family we all share a common

Biological heritage

The threadlike structures that contain genes are called

Chromosomes

Genes provide the code of the production of

Proteins

Fraternal twins originate from the fertilization of

two egg cells by two sperm cells

Compared to identical twins, fraternal twins are

Less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion.

Identical twins reared apart have ____ similar personalities than identical twins reared together and ______ similar personalities than fraternal twins reared apart.

less;more

The best reason to be cautious about attributing all the personality similarities of separated twins to genetic factors is that:

Adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes.

We are likely to ____ the personality similarities among children in the same family, and we are likely to _____ the personality similarities between parents and their children

overestimate;overestimate

Adopted children grow up to be _____self-giving and altruistic than average, and they typically report feeling a _____ attachment to one or both adoptive parents.

more;strong

Our enduring personality traits are first evident in our differing

temperaments

Exceptionally timid and cautious infants tend to become shy and unassertive adolescents. This best illustrates the long-term stability of

temperament

those who inappropriately attribute children's troubling personality traits to inadequate parental nurture should be reminded of the importance of

gender predisposition

our selective exposure to those life experiences that are best suited to our unique temperaments best illustrates the interaction of

nature and nurture

Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted

reproductive sucess

Mutations result from random errors in

gene replication

Evolutionary psychologists are most directly concerned with the impact of ______ on behavior.

Genetic predispositions

the principles of evolutionary psychology would suggest that parents are genetically predisposed to experience the strongest grief over their

adolescent sons

Compared with men, women are ______likely to cite affection as a reason for first intercourse and _____ likely to think about sex.

More; less.

Men rape women much more frequently than women rape men. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely explain this in terms of sex differences in:

reproductive capacity

Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that men will marry women who are ____than they are

younger

Ginger wants to marry someone who will provide financial security for her children. Evolutionary psychologists would most likely attribute Ginger's motivation to:

Genetic predispositions

critics of evolutionary psychology would be most likely to suggest that it has difficulty accounting for

differences in the behavior patterns of Asians and Americans

Carlos was born with cataracts in both eyes. Even though they were removed when he was 5, his lack of visual experiences during early childhood makes it likely that he has experienced:

Degeneration of neural connections in visual reception areas of the brain.

The remarkable academic and vocational successes of the Children of refugee "boat people" from Vietnam and Cambodia best illustrate the importance of:

Family and environment

Children's English accents are more likely to be influenced by their

peers rather than their parents

The enduring traditions, ideas, attitudes and behaviors shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next define their

culture

The rules of a culture for accepted and expected behaviors are

Norms

Social norms have been found to
A. facilitate smooth social interaction
B.Vary from one culture to another.
C.Free people from uncertainty about how they ought to behave
D. do all of the above,.

D. do all of the above

In which of the following countries do people generally refer to maintain the largest personal space?

England

Interdependence is to ____ as independence is to ______

Collectivism; individualism

In a collectivist culture, individuals are likely to avoid:

Embarrassing other people

One would not observe unusually high rates of divorce in cultures that promote:

Collectivism

Compared with those living in individualist cultures, people in collectivist cultures are likely to experience:

less privacy and less lonliness

Parents in Westernized cultures are more likely than parents in Asian cultures to encourage children to value

nonconformity

Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that:

Developmental processes are highly similar among individuals raised in different cultures.

Research on gender and aggression indicates that:

Throughout the world, males are more likely than females to commit violent crimes.

During mixed- sex group conversation, men are more liekly than women to:
a. stare at members of the opposite sex
b.determine what topics to discuss
c.interrupt other speakers.
d.do all of the above

d. do all of the above

Compared to men, women are more likely to show obvious signs of:

interdependece

A study of phone communication in France indicated that women make ______ phone calls than men and stay connected for a _________ period of time than men do when talking to other men.

More; shorter

A baby girl receives an

X chromosome from her father and mother

gender differences in spatial perception skills are consistent with evidence that part of the

Parietal lobes is thicker in men than in women

Maria has always taken responsibility for preparing family meals because she learned that this was expected of women. Her behavior best illustrates the importance of:

Gender roles

A person's sense of being male or female is his or her gender:

Identity

Elton responds to his daughter's fistfight with, "good girls don't fight!" but when his son has a fistfight he says, "Did you win?!" The role of Elton's reactions in the gender-typing of his children would be of most direct interest to:

Social learning theorists

Children's tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the process of:

Gender typing

An Integrated understanding of gender differences in behavior in terms of gender roles, sex hormones, and individual expectations regarding gender appropriate behavior is most clearly provided by:

A biopsychosocial approach

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