world history chapter 12

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Who became the only woman to rule China in her own name?

Wu Zhao

T/F

Invaders of China often adopted Chinese civilization rather than demolish it.

T

China was not restored to its earlier glory until the emergence of the ____dynasty in 618.

Tang

After the ___dynasty collapsed in 220, China broke apart and remained divided for nearly 400 years.

Han

Tang Dynasty

*Chinese dynasty from 618-907
*helped restore Han's system of uniform government
*perfected civil service exams to recruit Confucian scholars
*instituted a system of land reform
*built system of canals that encouraged internal trade and transportation
*excouraged foreign trade

Li Yuan

First Tang emperor who was a general under the Sui dynasty

Tang Taizong

Li Yuan's son; a brilliant general, government reformer, historian, and master of the calligraphy brush; became China's most admired emperor

tributary states

independent state that has to acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler

What neighboring lands did Chinese armies force to become tributary states?

Vietnam, Tibet, Korea

land reform

breakup of large agricultural holdings for redistribution among peasants

How did the system of land reform strengthen the central government of China?

It weakened the power of large landowners by redistributing the land to peasants. It increased government revenues, since the peasants who farmed their own land would be able to pay taxes.

What things contributed to the decline of the Tang dynasty?

corruption, high taxes, drought, famine, rebellions

Zhao Kuangyin

960; scholarly general who founded the Song dynasty

Song Dynasty

*Chinese dynasty from 960 to 1279
*known for its artistic achievements
*Chinese economy expanded because of improved farming methods and open border policy
*developed new strains of rice and improved irrigation
*encouraged foreign trade
transformed cities into centers of trade
*trade flourished with the issuance of paper money

Grand Canal was completed during the Sui dynasty, linking the ____to the ____.

Huang River and Chang River

What were China's 2 main social classes?

gentry; peasantry

gemtry

wealthy, landowning class

What was the order of the well-ordered society under the Tang and Song?

Emperor; Gentry; Peasantry; Merchants

Consisted of most scholar oficials from the wealthy landowning class; studied Confucian classics for civil service exams; the ideal Confucian official was wise, virtuous scholar?

Gentry

How could peasants move up in society?

through education and government service and by passing the civil service exam

Consisted of most Chinese who worked the land; could move up in society through education and government service; relied on each other instead of government?

Peasants

Lower status than peasants because their riches came from the labor of others?

Merchants

dowry

in some societies, payment a bride's family makes to the bridegroom and his family; payment a woman brings to a marriage

Explain footbinding

*custom of binding long strips of cloth to make a "lily-shaped" foot on a woman
*became a symbol of nobility and beauty
*parents feared that they may not be able to marry off their daughter if her feet were big

During the Song period, artists sought to capture what?

the spiritual essence of the natural world

____themes dominated sculpture and influenced Chinese architecture.

Buddhist

pagoda

multi-storied Buddhist temple with eaves that curve up at the corners

Chinese perfected skills in making?

porcelain

Short stories that often blended ____,____,and ____, made their first appearance in Chinese literature.

fantasy, romance, adventure

Many Chinese poems reflected on what?

the shortness of life and the immensity of the universe

Li Bo

Tang poet who wrote 2,000 poems celebrating harmony with nature or lamenting the passage of time

Which of the following was an accomplishment under the Tang?

A. the development of new strains of rice
B. land reform
C. the invention of new methods of irrigation
D. food surpluses

B

States that were self governing, but sent tributes to the Tang emperor were known as?

A. provinces
B. tributary states
C. colonies
D. pagodas

B

The break-up and redistribution of large land holdings is a system of?

A. gentry
B. tributary states
C. land reform
D. earthquakes

C

General Zhao Kuangyin founded the ____dynasty.

A. Tang
B. Qin
C. Ming
D. Song

D

The Chinese wealthy landowning class was the?

A. samurai
B. gentry
C. shoguns
D. Confucians

B

A multi-storied Chinese temple is a?

A. dowry
B. celadon
C. pagoda
D. pyramid

C

China's only female ruler who ruled in her own name?

A. Wu Zhao
B. Li Yuan
C. Tang Taizong
D. Zhao Kuangyun

A

Which of the following was NOT an accomplishment of the Tang rulers?

A. they built a beauracracy
B. they set up schools
C. they developed a flexible law code
D. they gave more power to landowners

D

Which is the correct order of Chinese rulers from 618 to the late 1200s?

A. Mongols, Han, Tang
B. Han, Mongols, Tang
C. Tang, Han, Song
D. Tang, Song, Mongols

D

What allowed the Chinese to pursue the arts under the Song?

A. money grants from the emperors
B. a fast growing type of rice imported from Southeast Asia
C. an influx of scholarly Muslims from Baghdad
D. two new universities in Hangzhou

B

Who held the lowest status in Chinese society?

A. the gentry
B. merchants
C. peasants
D. scholars

B

Who conquered the Song dynasty?

Mongols

Mongols

*only foreign dynasty to rule China
*nomadic people who grazed their horses and sheep on the steppes
*conquered the Song dynasty

steppe

sparse, dry, treeless grassland

Genghis Khan

*"universal ruler"
*Mongol chieftain who conquered a vast empire that stretched from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe
*had a reputation for fierceness and demanded absolute loyalty
*imposed strict military discipline
*set an example for successors by ruling conquered lands with toleration and justice

How did the Mongols treat their conquests?

they allowed the conquered people to live as they had before, as long as they regularly paid tribute to the Mongols

Kublai Khan

*Genghis Khan's grandson
*emperor of China in 1279
*Ruled all of China, Korea, and Tibet
*adopted Chinese civilization
*welcomed foreigners to visit court
*adopted the Chinese name "Yuan" for his dynasty
Hired Marco Polo for 17 years

Yuan dynasty

Chinese dynasty ruled by the Mongols from 1279 to 1368; best known ruler was Kublai Khan

Marco Polo

Italian merchant who visited China during the Yuan dynasty; wrote "Divisament dou Monde" about the wonders of China

Pax Mongolica

Mongol Peace established by the heirs of Ghengis Khan; Mongols controlled the great Silk Road and protected it; trade flourished across Eurasia

How did Kublai Khan organize Mongol rule in China?

*only Mongols could serve in the military and hold the highest government jobs
*Chinese officials were allowed to rule in the provinces

Zhu Yuanzhang

a Chinese peasant leader who forged a rebel army that toppled the Mongols and pushed them back beyond the Great Wall; founded the Ming dynasty

Ming dynasty

*Chinese dynasty in which Chinese rule was restored
*held power from 1368 to 1644
*restored the civil service system and made the exams more rigorous
*revived Confucian learning
*repaired canal system and made trade easier
*made Chinese cities home to many industries including porcelain, paper, and tools
*improves printing to lead to production of books
*produced the world's first detective stories
*began explorations at sea

T/F

The Chinese welcomed the Mongol rulers

F

Zheng He

*Chinese admiral and diplomat
*commanded the first of seven expeditions at sea, whose goal was to promote trade and collect tribute from lesser powers

In China, under Mongol rule?

A. foreigners were prohibited from landing on Chinese shores
B. only Chinese were allowed to hold the highest government jobs
C. only Mongols were allowed to serve in the military
D. Chinese were prohibited from ruling the provinces

C

In regard to overseas exploration, Ming emperors?

A. prohibited it because they saw Chinese civilization as superior to all others
B. encouraged it because they believed Chinese civilizations benefited from outside influences
C. were indifferent
D. produced many fleets of seagoing vessels

A

What seperates Korea from China?

mountains and the Yalu River

South Korea has one of the largest ____industries in the world.

fishing

What were the 3 unified dynasties of Korea?

Silla (668-935)
Koryo (918-1392)
Chosen (1392-1910)

Silla dynasty

*Korean dynasty that ruled from 668-935
*among the most advanced in the world
*Korea prospered and the arts flourished
*capital was Kyongju was renowned as "city of gold"
*medicine, astronomy, metal casting, sculpture, and textile manufacturing reached high levels
*set up a national Confucian academy to train high officials
*only aristocrats were allowed to take the civil service exam; this led to conflicts between the peasants and the aristocrats; lead to the Silla's overthrow

Koryo dynasty

*Korean dynasty that ruled from 935-1392
*new capital is Songak
*Confucism and Buddhism were both influential
*used woodblock printing to produce Buddhist texts
*created movable metal type to print large numbers of books
*learned to make porcelain from China
*perfected the technique for making celadon

celadon

porcelain made in Korea with an unusual blue-green glaze

Choson dynasty

*Korean dynasty that ruled from 1392-1910
*longest-lived of Korea's 3 dynasties
*King Sejong creates the hangul alphabet which led to a high literacy rate
*Yi Sun-Shin used "turtle ships" to ward off invading Japanese fleets
*reduced Buddhist influence and set up a government based upon Confucian principles

King Sejong

Korea's most celebrated ruler; replaced the complex Chinese system of writing with hangul

hangul

alphabet that uses symbols to represent the sounds of spoken Korean

literacy rate

percentage of people who could read and write

Yi Sun-Shin

Korean admiral; considered one of Korea's great heroes; used "turtle ships" to ward off invading Japanese fleets

More than half of the Korean peninsula is made of?

A. mountains
B. coastal plains
C. deserts
D. valleys

A

With the development of hangul?

A. Chinese influence in Korea ended
B. Buddhism spread more quickly through Korea
C. Korean peasants were allowed to take the civil service exam
D. the literacy rate in Korea increased

D

Korea became a tributary state of China under what Korean dynasty?

A. Yi
B. Koryo
C. Silla
D. Ming

C

Koreans traded their prized celadon, or?

A. blue-green porcelain
B. purple silk
C. landscape paintings on scrolls
D. flintlock rifles

A

The last and longest of Korea's dynasties was the?

A. Tang dynasty
B. Choson dynasty
C. Silla dynasty
D. Koryo dynasty

B

Koreans developed a writing system called hangul, which used?

A. one character to represent one word
B. symbols to represent ideas
C. pictures to show action
D. symbols to represent sounds

D

The creation of hangul led to?

A. revolts by Korean scholars
B. a high literacy rate
C. strikes by teachers
D. the invention of moveable type

B

Which Han emperor set up a military colony in Korea?

A. Liu Bang
B. Gao
C. Wudi
D. Xuan

C

What religion brought by missionaries took hold among rulers and nobles in Korea?

A. Hinduism
B. Sikhism
C. Mahayana Buddhism
D. Theraveda Buddhism

C

Which of the following was NOT a result of Korea's adoption of Confucian ideas?

A. women's lives became more restricted
B. Korea respected China as "an older brother"
C. Civil Service exams were given
D. Peasants could win political influence by passing an exam

D

The secret of making celadon was lost when what group overran Korea?

A. Mongols
B. Chinese
C. Japanese
D. Europeans

A

The use of what stopped the Japanese invasions of Korea?

A. cannons
B. "turtle ships"
C. floating mines
D. "Eel boats"

B

archipelago

chain of islands

Japan is located on a ____100 miles east of the Korean peninsula.

archipelago

How did the seas help Japan?

*protected and isolated Japan
*helped preserve Japanese identity
*served as trade routes
*offered food

Japanese lies in a region made up of a chain of volcanoes that encircle the Pacific Ocean, called?

Ring of Fire

tsunami

very large, damaging wave caused by an earthquake or very strong wind

uji

Japanese clans

Honshu

largest Japanese island

Yamato clan

*Japan's first and ONLY dynasty
*came to dominate the corner of Honshu
*center of Japanese government
*they claimed direct descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu, and chose the rising sun as their symbol

kami

superior powers that were natural or devine

Shinto

principle religion in Japan that emphasizes the worship of nature; shrines are dedicated to special sites like mountains, waterfalls, trees, and oddly shaped rocks

What did the Japanese adopt from China?

*Chinese ideas about government
*Chinese fashion
*Chinese language and characters
*Chinese foods
*Confucian ideas and ethics

Who were the Japanese officials?

the educated sons of nobles NOT aristocracy or peasants who passed the civil service exam

selective borrowing

adopting or adapting some cultural traits but discarding others

How did Japan seek out Chinese influences?

Prince Shotoku of the Yamato clan, sent young nobles to study in China. Each visitor to China spent a year or more there, negotiating, trading, and studying.

kana

in the Japanese writing system, phonetic symbols representing syllables

Heian

capital in Japan in present day Kyoto; emperors performed traditional religious ceromonies here

Who was the best known Heian writer, who wrote, "The Tale of Genji," the world's first full length novel?

Murasaki Shikibu

shogun

supreme military commander

daimyo

great warrior lords

samaurai

member of the warrior class in the Japanese feudal society; lesser warrior

bushido

code of conduct for samurai during the feudal period in Japan; emphasized honor, bravery, and absolute loyalty to one's land

T/F

the samurai bushido did not set women on a pedestal

T

What is the order of the feudal system in Japan? (top to bottom)

*emperor (had no political power)
*shogun (actual ruler)
*daimyo (large landowners)
*samurai (warriors loyal to daimyo)
*peasants
*artisans
*merchants

zen

the practice of meditation; a school of Buddhism in Japan

The seas surrounding Japan?

A. kept Korean influence out of Japan
B. protected and isolated Japan
C. served to inhibit trade
D. led to repeated Chinese invasions

B

Which of the following best describes Chinese influences on Japan?

A. the Japanese were never interested in things Chinese
B. the Japanese engaged in selective borrowing at first, and later began adopting all things Chinese
C. the Japanese adopted many Chinese customs at first, and later engaged in selective borrowing
D. the Japanese were only interested in adopting Chinese system of government

C

A chain of islands is a(n)?

A. reef
B. tsunami
C. archipelago
D. atoll

C

Waves launched by underwater earthquakes are?

A. tsunamis
B. shinto
C. tidal waves
D. bushido

A

The process of adopting some customs, but not others is called?

A. partial conversion
B. selective borrowing
C. limited sharing
D. finite trading

B

The fighting aristocracy of Japan were called?

A. bushido
B. shogun
C. daimyo
D. samurai

D

What Buddhist sect gained widespread acceptance in feudal Japan?

A. Nichiren
B. Zen
C. Theravada
D. Tibetan

B

What clan set up Japan's only dynasty?

A. The Shinto clan
B. The Shotoku clan
C. The Kyoto clan
D. The Yamato clan

D

In Japan, the worship of the forces of nature is called?

A. bushido
B. kana
C. Zen Buddhism
D. Shinto

D

Whom did the Japanese imitate in their new capital at Nara?

A. Europeans
B. The Mongols
C. The Chinese
D. The Koreans

C

The world's first full length novel was?

A. "The Noblewoman's Tale"
B. "The Tale of Genji"
C. "The Water Margin"
D. "The House of Nara"

B

In feudal Japan, the real power lay in the hands of the?

A. emperor
B. shogun
C. daimyo
D. samurai

B

What was the impact of the collapse of the Han dynasty?

China broke apart and remained divided for almost 400 years

How did the Tang dynasty reunite China?

this dynasty conquered territories deep in to central Asia and forced neighboring lands to become tributary states

Howe did the rising productivity in farming benefit China?

the rise in productivity created surpluses allowing more people to pursue commerce, learning, or the arts

Genghis Khan set an example by ruling conquered lands with toleration and justice. What religious ideas was he willing to listen to?

he listened to the ideas of Buddhists, Christians, Muslims, Jews, and Zorastrians

What occurred in 1435 that changed China's relationship with the rest of the world?

the Ming dynasty banned the building of sea going ships and haulted expeditions, thereby ending overseas exploration

What are the 2 major regions of Southeast Asia?

mainland Southeast Asia and island Southeast Asia

matrilineal

term for a family organization in which kinship ties are traced through the mother

Japanese miniature poems are called?

A. kabuki
B. banaku
C. No
D. haiku

D

King Anawrahta

king of the kingdom of Pagan; credited for bringing Buddhism to the Burman people

stupa

large dome like Buddhist shrine

Khmer Empire

*it's greatest rulers controlled much of present day Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia
*saw themselves as god kings
*Khmer rulers became Hindus

paddies

rice fields

Fields in which rice is grown is called?

A. stupas
B. paddies
C. terraces
D. marshes

B

Dome shaped shrines in Southeast Asia are called?

A. pagodas
B. paddies
C. daimyo
D. stupas

D

Societies in which inheritance descends through mothers are known as?

A. matrilineal
B. Patrilineal
C. nurturing
D. clans

A

The straits that seperated island Southeast Asia from the mainland are called?

A. Bosphorus and Malacca
B. Malacca and Sunda
C. Hormuz and Gibaltar
D. Bosphorus and Hormuz

B

What natural phenomena controlled the trading patterns in the southern seas?

A. the typhoons
B. the tsunamis
C. the gulf stream
D. the monsoons

D

The key products of Southeast Asia were originally what?

A. cotton and wool
B. spices
C. precious metal
D. silk and porcelain

B

What religion spread into Indonesia and has continued to dominate today?

A. Theravada Buddhism
B. Zen Buddhism
C. Islam
D. Hinduism

C

What kingdom in present day Myanmar was a Buddhist center?

A. the kingdom of Vietnam
B. the kingdom of Pagan
C. the kingdom of Srivijaya
D. the kingdom of Khmer

B

Khmer King Suryavarman II built the great temple complex called?

A. Angkor Wal
B. the Taj Mahal
C. Sumatra
D. the Bodhi Shrine

A

What people conquered and influenced the State of Annam, today part of Vietnam?

A. the Indians
B. the Mongols
C. the Chinese
D. the Pagans

C

Which of the following followed after the fall of Sui?

A. Shang
B. Song
C. Tang
D. Han

B

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