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1. Chemical and structural bridges link groups or layers of like cells, uniting them in structure and function as a cohesive:

Tissue

2. The tissue that lines internal surfaces of the body is:

Epithelial

3. Epithelial cells are specialized for all the following functions EXCEPT:

Contraction

4. Adhering and gap junctions are found at the:

Plasma membrane

5. Which junction influences the passage of ions and small molecules between cells?

Gap

6. The secretion of tears, milk, sweat, and oil are functions of what tissue?

Epithelial

7. Which epithelial cell is modified for diffusion?

Simple squamous

8. The type of epithelial cell found in the lining of the stomach, intestinal tract, and part of the respiratory tract is:

Simple columnar

9. Exocrine glands secrete:

All of these (enzymes, sweat, milk, saliva)

10. Which of the following is NOT included in connective tissues?

Skeletal muscle

11. What type of tissue is blood?

Connective

12. An extracellular ground substance is characteristic of:

Connective tissue

13. Connective tissues include all the following EXCEPT:

Outer layers of skin

14. Dense fibrous tissues that connect muscle to bone are called:

Tendons

15. Collagen fibers are characteristics of which tissue?

Connective

16. Tendons connect:

Muscles to bones

17. Bones are linked together at skeletal joints by:

ligaments

18. Cartilage is found:

All of these (nose, end of bones, external ear, between vertebrae)

19. Adipose tissue cells are filled with:

Fat

20. If its cells are striated and fused at the ends so that the cells contract as a unit, the tissue is:

Cardiac muscle

21. Muscle that is NOT striped and is involuntary is:

Smooth

22. Cardiac muscle cells are:

Both involuntary and striated

23. Smooth muscles are:

All (isolated, spindle-shaped cells, found in the walls of hollow structures such as blood vessels and the stomach, involuntary and nonstriated)

24. Rapid communication throughout the body is accomplished by:

Neurons

26. Which of the following represents the correct hierarchy of organization in the human body?

Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems

27. A cell in the pancreas is unaffected by which of the following features of muscle or bone tissue?

None of these, because all directly or indirectly affect any given cell in the pancreas

28. Of the following organs, which is NOT in the abdominal cavity?

Heart

29. What we usually call the "back" of the human body is really the:

Posterior

30. Muscle cells are produced by:

The mesoderm

31. The lining of the intestinal tract is produced by:

The endoderm

32. The nervous system is produced by:

The ectoderm

33. The external covering of the body is produced by:

The ectoderm

34. Somatic cells can form all but which of the following?

Gametes

35. The endocrine system functions in:

Hormonal control of body functioning

36. Maintaining the volume and composition of body fluids is the direct responsibility of which system?

Urinary

37. Which system is involved with body movement?

Muscular system

38. Integration of body functions is controlled by the:

Both nervous and endocrine systems

39. Which system produces blood cells?

Skeletal

40. Extracellular fluid would NOT include:

Cytoplasm

41. When nutrients are supplied to a cell, the last fluid through which they must pass before encountering the plasma membrane is the:

Interstitial fluid

42. Which of the following is most directly associated with a stimulus?

Receptors

43. Which are examples of integrators?

Brain, spinal cord

44. The control of the temperature of the body is an example of which of the following?

Both a homeostatic mechanism and a negative feedback system

1. Which of the following is usually NOT present in an open circulation system?

Veins

2. Which of the following has a close circulatory system?

Earthworm

3. Which of the following statements is false?

Humans have an open circulatory system

4. Which of the following systems is the only one to have direct interactions with the other three?

Circulatory

5. Which of the following possesses a three chambered heart?

Frog

6. Which of the following is true of the pulmonary circuit?

The right ventricle pumps oxygen-poor blood

7. Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymph system?

Transporting dissolved gases

8. Which of the following makes up the greatest percentage of human plasma?

Water

9. Which cell is NOT the same type as the others?

Erythrocytes

10. Which cell is NOT involved with the defense response?

Erythrocytes

11. Which cell is the most abundant in the human body?

Erythrocytes

12. Which cell produces the fibrin used in blood clots?

Platelets

13. In humans, which cell does NOT have a nucleus when mature?

Erythrocytes

14. Most of the oxygen in the blood is transported by:

Hemoglobin

15. Red blood cells originate in the:

Bone marrow

16. How long does the average red blood cell live?

4 months

17. About how many quarts of blood does a normal, 150-pound, human male have?

4-5

18. What percent of the total blood volume does plasma normally amount to?

50 to 60

19. Hemoglobin contains which element?

Iron

20. Megakaryocytes fragment to produce:

Platelets

21. Blood rich in oxygen is what color?

Bright red

22. Type A blood will NOT agglutinate when mixed with:

Both A and AB, but will clump with types B and O

23. Which blood type is the universal donor?

O

24. Which blood type is the universal recipient?

AB

25. In the Rh disease:

The mother must be negative and her first and second children positive

26. If you are blood type A:

You carry antibodies for type B blood

27. The pulmonary circulation:

Leads to, through, and from the lungs

28. In the human systemic circuit, blood will pass through all but which of the following?

Lungs

29. In its travel through the human body, blood usually continues on from capillaries to enter:

Venules

30. Which of the following statements is true?

The systemic circuit leaves the heart from the left ventricle

31. Blood in arteries:

Always travels away from the heart

32. The receiving zone of a vertebrate heart is:

An atrium

33. The aorta leaves the:

Left ventricle

34. The pulmonary artery carries blood away from the:

Right ventricle

35. Blood from the body is first received by the heart in the:

Right atrium

36. The heart:

Will contract as a result of stimuli from the sinoatrial node

37. Heart excitation originates in the:

Sinoatrial node

38. What occurs during systole?

The heart muscle tissues contract

39. The pacemaker is which of the following nodes?

Sinoatrial

40. If a physician hears two "lub" sounds instead of one, which of these is true?

The atrioventricular valves are not closing at the same time

41. The coronary vessels:

Supply and drain the heart muscle

42. Which of the following statements is false?

A heart will stop beating when the nerves to the heart are severed

43. Blood pressure is highest in the:

Aorta

44. The greatest volume of blood is found in the:

Veins

45. Which of the following has the highest blood pressure?

Left ventricle

46. Which of the following is NOT found in an arteriole?

Valve

47. The diastolic pressure for a normal adult would be:

80 mmHg

48. The greatest drop in blood pressure occurs in the:

Arterioles

49. The interstitial fluid is:

All of these (a reservoir, the extracellular fluid, supplied by the blood, similar to sea water)

50. Extracellular fluid contains all but which of the following?

Erythrocytes

51. At the arteriole end of the capillary, more fluid leaves the capillary than enters as a result of:

Hydrostatic force

52. Reabsorption:

Is the movement of components of the interstitial fluid into a capillary bed and occurs at the end of the capillary bed

53. By controlling their musculature, which of the following can vary the resistance to blood flow?

Arterioles

54. Because of their great elasticity, which of the following can function as blood volume reservoirs during times of low metabolic output?

Veins and venules

55. Which of the following controls the distribution of blood?

Arterioles

56. Which of the following are pressure reservoirs with low resistance to flow?

Arteries

57. Which of the following are highly distensible reservoirs for blood volume?

Veins

58. The greatest volume of blood is found in the:

Veins

59. The most common vascular disease is:

Hypertension

60. A stroke is a rupture of a blood vessel in the:

Brain

61. In atherosclerosis:

All of these (abnormal multiplication of smooth muscle cells in blood vessels occurs, the arterial walls fill with connective tissue, the lipids in the bloodstream become embedded in the walls of the endothelial lining, a fibrous net covers the entire abnormal area)

62. The mineral associated with atherosclerosis is:

Calcium

63. Cholesterol is believed to be carried by:

High-density lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins

64. Hemostasis in vertebrates includes all of the following EXCEPT:

Release of iron to aid in the clumping of platelets

65. Which of the following is NOT involved in the formation of a blood clot?

Plasma cells

66. Which of the following is transported in greater quantities in the lmphatic system in the blood?

Fats

67. Which statement is NOT true of the lymph vascular system? The lymph vascular system:

Absorbs glucose from the small intestine and transports it to the brain

68. The lymphoid organs include all but the:

Stomach

69. The system that reclaims fluids and proteins that have escaped from blood capillaries is the:

Lymphatic

70. Areas where lymphocytes congregate as they cleanse the blood of foreign materials are called:

Lymph nodes

71. This blood component plays a central role in clotting blood following a wound.

Platelets

72. This blood component contains hemoglobin.

Red blood cells

73. This blood component plays a role in the inflammatory response and shows anticlotting activity.

Basophils

74. This blood component plays a role in maintaining the ionic balance of the body.

Sodium and potassium chloride

75. Oxygen is transported throughout the body by this blood component.

Red blood cells

76. Blood from the superior and inferior vena cavas enters the heart via this structure.

Right atrium

77. Blood passes to the lungs from this structure.

Right ventricle

78. Deoxygenated blood exits the heart from this structure.

Right ventricle

79. Oxygenated blood enters the heart via this structure.

Left atrium

80. Blood is pumped to the majority of the body by this structure.

Left ventricle

81. Four of the five answers listed below designate organisms with open circulations. Select the exception.

Frogs

82. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common property. Select the exception.

Erythrocyte

83. Four of the five answers listed below are blood proteins. Select the exception.

Epinephrine

84. Four of the five answers listed below are characteristics of most veins. Select the exception.

Transport oxygen

85. Three of the four answers listed below are related by a common function. Select the exception.

Gamma globulin

86. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common feature. Select the exception.

Rh+

87. Four of the five answers listed below are related by a common function. Select the exception.

Heart

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