the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been succesful in the past.
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particlar prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
estimating the liklihood of events based on their availibility in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness) we presume such events are common.
the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them t communicate meaning.
in a language, the smalles distinctive sound unit
in a language, the smallest unit that carries maning; my be a word or part of a word (such as a prefix)
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
the stage in speech development, from about 1-2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly 2-word statements.
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - 'go car' - using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words.
Linguistic Relativity (aka Linguistic Determinism)
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.