When Elaine accepted a position with Cannon Corporation in Dallas, Texas, she felt uneasy. She was new to the area and new to this company. However, she was pleased that her new job offered her the opportunity to play on the company volleyball team. She quickly made new friends and, through her new friends, learned about the city. Apparently, her new job satisfies Elaine's ________ needs.
A central characteristic of "management by objectives" is that:
A. goals are set by top management and followed without question by others within the organization.
B. employees are given complete freedom to set their own goals as long as they are consistent with broad guidelines established by top management.
C. goals are set through a process involving all members of the organization.
D. it assumes that management must motivate employees, since employees are incapable of motivating themselves.
Kanetra believes that if she leaves her employees unsupervised for a few minutes they will do nothing but slack off. She is known as the "Dragon Lady" (at least behind her back) for the harsh criticism and punishment she disburses whenever an employee makes an error. Kanetra is a __________ manager.
A. Theory X
B. Theory Y
C. Theory Z
D. Theory plus
Herzberg's research found that safe working conditions and good pay:
A. are important motivators for most employees.
B. helped maintain worker satisfaction, but did little to increase motivation.
C. had no impact on worker morale.
D. were very important motivators for professional employees and managers, but were poor motivators for unskilled employees.
Which of the following statements about worker motivation is most consistent with the findings of the Hawthorne studies?
A. Worker motivation will fall significantly if lighting conditions, temperature, and other elements of the physical environment are not kept at their optimal levels.
B. Employees are more motivated if they feel they are part of a special group or project.
C. The best way to motivate employees is to offer pay raises, bonuses, and other financial incentives to employees who meet or exceed clearly specified goals.
D. Worker motivation is unimportant in determining the level of worker productivity, because productivity is primarily determined by external factors such as the speed of the machinery the employees operate.
Marla always strives to excel in her career. Several years ago, she finished College, finally achieving a Ph.D. Although she works as an educator and has a secure position at an urban college, she does not hold a faculty position at a prestigious university. It is obvious to her colleagues that Marla is unsatisfied with her position at work. She constantly gives coworkers subtle reminders of her superior academic credentials and only participates in work activities where she will assume a leadership role. Analyzing Marla's situation using Maslow's hierarchy of needs, which of the following needs are unmet?
A. self-actualization needs
B. esteem needs
C. social needs
D. physiological needs
Which of the following practices would be most consistent with the views of scientific management?
A, job enlargement
B. job simplification
C. job enrichment
D. job rotation
As a manager, Charlene works hard to ensure that employees are treated fairly, yet she still gets feedback that indicates that some employees don't believe she is fair. This problem most likely result from the fact that:
A. Charlene doesn't understand that employees are not concerned with equity, only with getting the biggest possible reward for the least possible effort.
B. "Fair treatment" is a hygiene factor rather than a motivator.
C. Attempts to treat employees fairly only work in an Asian or European culture. American employees tend to be individualists who believe that rewarding results are more important than perceptions of fairness.
D. Equity judgments are based on perceptions, and the perceptions of employees are not always accurate.
Which of the following statements is the best description of how scientific management viewed employees?
A. Employees are like machines that must be programmed to perform in a certain way
B. Most employees are creative and intelligent individuals who should be given a great deal of freedom and flexibility in how they perform their jobs
C. Employees will only exert their maximum effort if they believe that their goals are attainable
D. Employees are individuals who do not respond in the same way to a particular
Working conditions recently changed at the Great Barriers Corporation. Managers and employees now answer their own phones, and even top managers are addressed by their first name. The company even eliminated executive washrooms and parking spaces. Great Barriers implemented all of these changes to motivate employees to work more productively by creating a team spirit within the company. Great Barriers' efforts are consistent with an attempt to:
A. improve motivation through open communication.
B. fully implement the scientific management approach developed by Taylor.
C. establish a pure Type J approach to management.
D. ensure that maintenance factors are satisfactory.