PA Underground Railroad and Civil War

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William Still

>Worked as a clerk for the PA Anti-Slavery Society, where he met a former slave named Peter Freedman, who turned out to be his brother, and he organized many of the Underground Railroad operations in Philadelphia.

Underground Railroad

>An effort to help runaway slaves.

Gradual Emancipation Act

> Passed on March 1, 1780 and allowed masters to keep ownership of certain slave children until they were nearly thirty years old, PA was the first state to adopt this.

Pennsylvania Abolition Society

>Organized in 1787, in Philadelphia with Benjamin Franklin as its president to speed up the end of slavery and promote better lives for free blacks.

Richard Allen

>A black minister and former slave, who founded the Free African Society in 1787, a charitable organization to help Philadelphia's poorer African-American and the Mother Bethel A.M.E. Church, which became the flagship institution of the African Methodist Episcopal faith.

James Forten

>Black Philadelphia businessman, who devoted himself to the reform of free black society and the destruction of slavery by buying the largest block of an abolitionist subscription, organizing meetings and rallies, and purchasing slaves to offere them freedom.

Lucretia Mott

>A devout female Quaker minister who lived in Pennsylvania, and spearheaded the formation of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society in 1833.

Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society

>Organized in 1833 by Lucretia Mott and worked with other abolitionist committees and individuals to persuade the public that slavery was evil and to help runaway slaves find new lives in the North.

Jane Grey Swisshelm

>The first woman in the country to publish an abolitionist newspaper, in Pittsburgh in 1847.

Pennsylvania Hall

>Where the Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women held their annual meeting in Philadelphia and in May of 1838, an angry mob burned it down, only three days after it opened.

Philadelphia Vigilance Committee

>A local Underground Railroad operation in Philadelphia, founded in August 1837,They kept record sheld "soirees," to raise funds but their aggressiveness made them targets and the organization suffered a series of financial and political setback and by the end of the 1840s, there was practically no organized system left in Philadelphia or anywhere in Pennsylvania. It was reorganized in 1850
and due to William Still, it was made the hub in a far-flung network that extended up and down the Atlantic and across the state of Pennsylvania.

Federal Fugitive Slave Law

>A sectional deal between the free and slave states, called the Compromise of 1850. Gave this to the slave states in exchange for the admission of California as a free state. These new rules made it easier to pursue fugitive slaves in northern states.This outraged Pennsylvania's abolitionists, and sparked fears among free blacks of kidnapping raids targeting their youth.

Thomas Garrett

>A Quaker from Delaware, who often relayed "passengers" on the Underground Railroad from legendary "conductor" Harriet Tubman. In Philadelphia, he directed runaways to various safe houses, like his own residence or the Johnson House in Germantown.

Harriet Tubman

>Legenday conductor on the Underground Railroad.

Martin Delany

>Pittsburgh mayor and leader of the local African-American community called the Philanthropic Society, which provided coordination for Underground Railroad activities comparable to what the Vigilance Committee offered in Philadelphia, had mistakenly accused a man of being a slave catcher when he was traveling under consent with an African-American women.

Lancaster

>Gorsuch a maryland slaveholder and a small party of slave catchers went to the town of Christiana at the southern end of this county to take back his runaway slaves, here they were confronted by William Parker, a local African American who was helping to protect the runaways, black residents, and a handful of white neighbors, who were armed and angry, which resulted in the Christiana Riot.This newspaper speculated that Christiana was "The First Blow Struck" in an impending "Civil War."

Julius Lemoyne

A nationally known abolitionist doctor in Washington County, whose home was a stop on the Underground Railrod in western PA.

William Goodridge

>A Businessman in York County owned freight cars that carried fugitives on an "upper-ground" railroad that was eventually destined for upstate New York.

Daniel Hughes

>An American Indian who carried fugitives on his lumber raft along the Susquehanna River to a place in Lycoming County now called Freedom Road Cemetery.

Edward Gorsuch

>A Maryland slaveholder who received a letter from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania that provided information on the location of four runaway slaves who had escaped from his plantation. This resulted in the Christiana Riot, the end his life and help to spark the Civil War.

Christiana

>The town at the southern edge of Lancaster County where the Christiana Riot occured between Gorsuch and the community.The Lancaster newspaper speculated that this was "The First Blow Struck" in an impending "Civil War."

John Brown

>A former Pennsylvania resident that ran a tannery in New Richmond during the 1820s and 1830s believed his divine calling was: to strike a violent blow against slavery. He was responsible for several deaths in Kanas and in
Pennsylvania he secretly plotted to launch a full-scale war against slavery at nearby Harpers Ferry, Virginia on October 16, 1859.

Frederick Douglass

>An important black abolitionist, who declined to join John Brown.

James Buchanan

>Lincoln's predecessor and PA native, who at his inauguration on March 4, 1857, dismissed the importance of slavery as a national issue but after his defeat by Lincoln, Buchanan asserted that the states had no right to secede but took no action to stop them, arguing that he lacked the constitutional power to do so.

Constitution

>In Dred Scott v. Sanford Supreme Court case they decided that Congress had no right within this document to legislate slavery in the territories, and African Americans were not and could not become citizens of the United States.

William Johnston

> PA governor, and a Free Soil Whig, who refused to repeal state laws protecting escaped slaves or to aid in the enforcement of the new federal law.

Mercersburg

>Where James Buchanan grew up.

Supreme Court

>This department announced its explosive decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford: Congress had no constitutional right to legislate slavery in the territories, and African Americans were not and could not become citizens of the United States, which infuriated the anti-slavery movement, and Buchanan did little to alleviate the tensions, siding with Southern interests on almost every occasion.

Dred Scott

>In his Supreme Court case against Sanford it was decided that Congress had no constitutional right to legislate slavery in the territories, and African Americans were not and could not become citizens of the United States, which infuriated the anti-slavery movement, and Buchanan did little to alleviate the tensions, siding with Southern interests on almost every occasion.

House of Representatives

>In the midterm election of 1858, Republicans took twenty of Pennsylvania's twenty-five congressional seats and won control of this division of Congress but in 1862, conservative Democrats took control of this division of congress and picked up four U.S. congressional districts, after conservative judges ruled that the state constitution did not allow soldiers to vote outside of their home districts. Control of the legislature allowed Democrats to elect Charles Buckalew, a war critic, to the U.S. Senate in 1863.

Chambersburg

>John Brown as "Isaac Smith" took up residency in a boarding house here, while planning his assault.

Bleeding Kansas

>John Brown, a radical abolitionist with a price on his head for his murderous actions in this uprising.

Harpers Ferry

>John Brown collected weapons for a raid on this arsenal in hopes of starting a massive slave uprising but failed

Republican

>The new political party, born out of great political crisis, first organized nationally in Pittsburgh and Philadelphia during the mid-1850s by Congressman David Wilmot, in the midterm election of 1858, this party took twenty of Pennsylvania's twenty-five congressional seats and won control of the U.S. House of Representatives, in the presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln, a member of this party won the office but A handful of this party fought against the extension of slavery because they believed it was wrong, and hoped for equality for blacks. Most, however, joined the anti-slavery crusade to promote what they celebrated as white "free labor", which focused on westward expansion for the benefit of hard-working white farmers and laborers and this became a pillar early on for this party.

The South

>In fear of more dangerous outrages on December 7, 1859, a large assembly in Philadelphia denounced Brown's terrorism, called for enforcement of federal laws, and supported the right of this part of the U.S. to manage its own affairs and before Lincoln became president in March 1861, seven states from the Deep in this part of the country voted to leave the Union rather than accept his election.

Secession

>After the election of Lincoln, the first state to pass these articles was South Carolina, followed by 6 other southern states.

Democrats

>This party believed that because the constitution recognized the institution of slavery, the federal government had no right to interfere with it.
> In 1862, this party took control of the State House of Representatives and picked up four U.S. congressional districts, after conservative judges ruled that the state constitution did not allow soldiers to vote outside of their home districts. Control of the legislature allowed this party to elect Charles Buckalew, a war critic, to the U.S. Senate in 1863.

Wheatland

> With the Union in shambles and his reputation ruined, Buchanan then retired to here, his private residence in Lancaster and he died here on June 1, 1868.

Copperheads

>PA democrats that opposed the Civil War but after Lincoln's re-election in 1864, this anti-slavery movement faded.

Confederacy

>During the secession crisis, conservatives held rallies all over the state calling for reunification with slavery intact. A smaller group advocated the independence of this, also known as the south. A few radicals, led by Philadelphians with ties to the South, suggested that Pennsylvania also should secede and join this or the south and more than 2,000 Pennsylvanians took up arms for the this also known as the south.

Philadelphians

>During the secession crisis, conservatives held rallies all over the state calling for reunification with slavery intact. A smaller group advocated the independence of the Confederacy. A few radicals, peolple living in this large city in PA with ties to the South, suggested that Pennsylvania also should secede and join the Confederacy.

African Americans

>Opposition to the war was widespread throughout the state. Many white Pennsylvanians lamented fighting for the benefit of these people, whom they regarded as racially inferior.

Military Draft

>This was extremely unpopular statewide, which caused widespread desertion, and thses commissioners faced violence in every corner of the Commonwealth.

Andrew Curtin

>This incumbent Republican Governor escaped defeat at the hands of Copperhead Democrat George Woodward-one of the judges on the court that ruled in the soldier voting case-by only 16,000 votes out of 500,000 votes cast.

George McClellan

>After an amendment to the state constitution allowed soldier voting in time for the 1864 elections, Lincoln carried the state by only 20,000 votes. Without the soldiers' ballots, Lincoln probably would have lost the state to this Democratic challenger and Pennsylvania native.

Peace Movement

>The Democratic party's association with this movement would cost it dearly.

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