Ch 12 13 14 micro

204 terms by rikkismama 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

2 hookworm infections in humans

Ancylostoma duodenate and Necator americanus

4 species of shigella

boydii, dysenteriae, flexneri, sonnei(most common)

20% of bacteria is

feces

Abortive poliomyelitis

asymtomatic- 95%

acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

painful chewing

Adenovirus

group 1, dsDNA, resp, conj, GI, UTI-type 40 and 41 group f

African trypanosomiasis

sleeping sickness

Animal prion disease

Bovine spongiform ecephalopathy: madcow- chronic wasting disease, scrapie, feline SE, ungulate SE

Anopheles mosquito

carries plasmodium sporozoites

arachnoid

middle

Arboviral encephalitis

biological vector-encephalitis- west nile virus

Ascariasis

Ascaris lumbricoides- asymptomatic- most common worldwide worm infection- fruits and veggies- surgery for heavy infestation- treat: albendazole & pyratel panote, and mebanzote

aseptic meningitis

is viral infection

Aspergillosis

mold- Aspergillus flavus- corn and peanuts- produces aflatoxin- causes hepatitus, immunosupression, and helptocellular carcinoma- abcess in GI tract- systemic

Astroviruses and calciviruses

+ sense, ssRNA group iv- winter animals, and malaise 5 days

Babesiosis

caused by protozoa babesia-ticks- severe= fever, chills, anemia, organ failure- reproduce red blood cells

bacillus intoxication

bacillus cereus- gram +, spore forming, aerobic, produce enterotoxins

Bacteria found in large intestine

enteric rods, strep, clostridia and lactobacilli

Bacteria that causes conjunctivitis

strep. pneumoniae, H.influenza, s. aureus, H.spp

bacterial intoxication

toxins produced by bacteria

bacterial meningitis

1-2 days incub.- initial symp- nausea, vomit, stiff neck, fever headache-secondary: confusion, sleepiness, light sensitive, coma- less common, more severe.

Balantidium coli

largest protozoan parasite of humans, pigs and monkeys- fecal/oral transmission- watery stools, anorexia, nausea and pain- tetracycline to treat and metronidazole and todoqunol

blood-brain barrier

barrier between nervous tissue and blood- help CNS resist infection

Bloodborne Infectious disease

contain blood or fluids

Botulism

C.botulism, gram +, anaerobic, spore forming rod. produces neurotoxin- 7 serotypes A-G-A,B,E,F= human

botulism

clostridium botulinum- NEURO TOXIN- Foodborne, infant, wound, and inhalation

Botulism symptoms

blurred vision, dry mouth, dizzy, constipation, respiratory paralysis

brain and spinal cord are covered w?

meninges

Brucellosis

undulant fever- gram neg aerobic coccobacilli- flulike- can spread person to person if breastfeeding

C. jejuni

leading cause of diarrhea in US

C. tetani

produces neuro toxin(exotoxin)- gram + rod anaerobic spore- toxins are what spreads it.

camplyobacteriosis

camplybacter jejuni- C. fetus & C. coli- vibroid or helical- gram neg- motile- microerophilles- raw poultry- raw milk, nonchlorinated water

Candidasis

candida albicans- flora- illness and medications cause change- antibiotic, birth control and steroids, diabetes, HIV and cancer

Caries=

cavities

Cat scratch disease

Bartonela henselae- aerobic, gram neg rod- saliva or scratch, blister at site, lymph node swell, fever, malase, headache, fever

cephalic tetanus

rare, C.tetani in middle ear, head injury- cranial nerves

Cerebral toxoplasmosis

toxoplasmagondii-obligate intracellular- undercooked meat- speech, seizures, confusion, lethargy

Cerebrospinal fluid

circulates brain ventricles, central canal of spinal cord and subarachoid, low level of compliment proteins, bacteria in CSF can multiply w/ little immune response

Chloramphenicol

lipid soluable antibiotic- can enter brain

cholera

vibrio cholerae- watery diarrhea, vomit, leg cramps- gram neg- fac anaerobe- vibroid or rod- chloratoxin and enterotoxin

Circulatory

cardiovascular: heart, blood and blood vessels and lymphatic: lymph, lymphatic tissue, vessels and organs- returns excess tissue fluid to cardiovascular system (direct acess)

Clostridium perfringers

gram +, spore forming

CNS

Brain and spinal cord

CNS invasion

inflammation of brain alters blood-brain barrier and allows drugs in- lymphatic and bloodstream

Conjunctivitis

pinkeye- inflammation of transparent membrane that lines eyelid and eyeball- redness, itchy, roughness, discharge, teary

Cryptococcal meningitis

immunocompromised- head ache, vomit, photophobia, blurry vision, stiff neck, seizure, confusion, coma

Cryptococcoisis neoformans

encapsulated yeast- inhalation or wound

Cryptosporidiosis

cryptosporidium- fecal-oral route- uncooked meat- water- resistant to chlorine (swimming pools)- most common water born in US.

Cytomegalovirus

CMV- human herpes 5- infects monocytes, neutrophils, T-lymphocytes- body 2 body contact- no treatment

dental plaque

biofilm

diarrheal type of bacillus intoxication

start 4-16 hours- last 12-24 hours

Dry gangrene

distal limbs, ischemia, artenosclerosis

duramatter

outer

During bacterial infection of meningitis...

rapid increase in granulocytes and proteins- CSF becomes trubid

during CNS infection (meningitis)...

increase in lymphocytes, monocytes, and proteins.CSF remains clear

E. coli and Kleibsiella normally causes meningitis due to?

head injury, brain or spinal injury, sepsis, or nonsocomial infection

EEE

easter equine enceph.-human, horse, bird

Ehrlichiosis

ehrlica chattcensis- lonestar tick-prolonged: renal failure, intravascular cougulopethy, meningo enceph., resp. distress

Emetic type of bacillus intoxication

start 30 min -6 hrs-vomiting

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

endemic (murine) typhus

Ricketsias typhi- rat flea

Endocarditis

bacterial and fungal infections in heart

endocarditis

infective and non infective

endocardium

tissue lining heart chambers

Entameoba histolytica (Amebiosis)

100k annual mortality- water containing cysts or fecal oral route- no animal reservoir- acute amoebic colitis

enteric fever

parathyphoid fever- milder

enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC)

ST toxin, UTI- colonizes small intestine

Enterococcus faecalis

duodenum

enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)

produces enterotoxins

enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)

dysentry-no toxins- allow adherance to intestinal epithelium and disrupts microvilli

enteropathic E. coli (EPEC)

no toxins- shigells

enterotoxic E. coli(ETEC)

diarrhea- produce toxins- fimbrae

epidemic typhus

Ricketsias prowazetil- human body louse

Ergotism

fungus- claviceps purpures- produces alkaloids- hallucinations, GI upset, gangrene, st anthonys fire (pain in limbs)

Escherichia spp. gastroenteritis

E. Coli- pathogen or normal synthesizes vitamins

Fatal familial insomnia

deteriorate motor functions- inherited or sporatic

Fungal Infections

opportunistic

Gangrene

Necrosis- blood supply interrupted-> ischemia- enzymes from dying tissue further destroy surrounding tissue- surgery, antibiotic,

Gas gangrene

gas in infected tissue

gastroenteritis

inflammation of stomach and intestine caused by microorganism or ingestion of toxin- stomach flu

gastroenteritis is caused by

contaminated food or water, contact w infected person, unwashed hands, dirty food utensils, and contaminated work space. ingestion of bacterial toxins

Gastrointestional system

2nd most common site of infection

Generalized tetanus

most common, lock jaw, stiff neck, diff. swallowing, calf and pectoral spasms

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinler (GSSS)

defective gene coding for PRNP protein- multicentric amyloid plaques in frontal lobe

Giardiosis

Giardialamblia or G. intestinalis- greasy stools, flatuence, cramps, nausea- 1-2 weeks after infection, last 2-6 weeks

gingivitis

bleeding of gums and inflammation

gingivitis

inflammation of gums

H. influenza in children

Capsulated strain b= Hib

Haemophilus influenza

used to be most common cause of bact. meningitis

Haemophilus influenzae meningitis

H. influenza, gram neg, coccobacillus, normal flora of throat-can enter blood stream cause pneumonia, otis media, epiglotidis, meningitis-Resp droplet- IV antibiotics & steroids- 6 serotypes by their capsular polysaccharide.

Helicobacter peptic ulcer

transmitted via food, water, kissing- weightloss, poor appetite, burping, nausea, vomiting- antibiotics, h2 blockers, proton pump, & stomach lining protector drug

Helicobcter pylori

gram neg- microaerophillic, spiral shaped- motile w/ flagella- 30-50% is colonized with it.

hepatitus

A & E- HAV- hygene and is common; HEV- RARE

Hookworm infection

necaturiasis- dogs, cats, and humans- adult attaches to villi of intestine and sucks blood- heavy infection- anemia

How bacterial infections come about

pathogen enters gi tract, adheres and multiplies

How does flora prevent infection?

by competing with pathogens

Human disease

CJD- Degenerative brain disorder, sporadic, hereditary and acquired.

illieum

enteric rods and bacteroides

infective endocarditis

microbes= bacteria and fungi

Internal gangrene

white gangrene-bleaching

Kuru

endemic foretribe in New Guinea-cannibalism

LAC

Lacrosse enceph.- rare- children- midwest

Large intestine

is holding tank for bacteria that help in digestion-slow flow rate-high bacteria colonization-bacteroids & bifidobacteria

Leishmaniasis

viseral= fatal form, cutaneus= common form, sore at bite site; diffuse cutaneous= skin lesions; mucocutaneous= skin ulcers that spread and damage nose and mouth tissue

Leprosy

hansens disease-Mycobacteria leprae- gram +, acid fast, pleomorphic, intracellular- aerobic bacillus- waxy coating- skin, PNS, mucous membranes: nose, throat, eyes

listeria in pregnancy

microphages hiding from immune system can cross placenta-early onset:infected during pregnancy- late onset: infect during childbirth- treated w/ antibiotics

Listeria meningitis

listeria monocytogenes- gram + coccobacillus-foodborne illness-fatal-4 days- from blood stream to CNS

Listeria meningitis symptoms

fever, personality changes, uncoordinated movement, seizures, conciousness, tremors

listeriosis

Listeria monocytogenes, gram +, non sporing rod, fac. anaerobic intracellular-can spread to CNS- spread to circulatory-11-70 days-20-30 % mortality

local tetanus

persistant contractions at site of injury- uncommon, mild, subsides

Lyme disease

Borrelia burgordorfi- black legged tick- spirochete- can cross placenta

Malaria

common vector born- plasmodium vivax, falciparum, ovale, malariae- targets erythrocytes- Anopheles mosquitos

Meninges consist of?

3 membranes- outer, middle, and inner

meningioencephalltis

brain and meninges

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges- caused my microorganisms or injury- bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoans

Meningococcal meningitis

Neisseria meningitis- gram neg aerobic diplococcus- 5 serotypes: A,B,C,Y,W

Microbemia

microbes enter circulatory though lymphatic drainage

Mononucleosis

glandular fever- epstein-barr virus aka human herpes 4- infects blymphocytes- sore throat, fever, fatigue, glands swell, saliva contact- no treatment

Most common cause of bacterial meningitis

Strep. pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitis

most common cause of foodborne illness

bacteria and toxins

Multibacilliary

lepromatous-more virulent- symmetric visions, nodules, plaques, thickened dermis

Mycocardium

viral infections in heart muscle= myocarditis

Myocarditis

viral or parasite- causes heart failure- chest pain, arrythmias, leg swelling

Neisseria meningitis disease info:

spread resp or person 2 person- incub. 1-3 days- sore throat, headache, drowsiness, fever, stiffneck, photosensitivity- hemorrhagic skin rash= septicemia- can cause amputation

Neonatal tetanus

newborns, umbilical stump- rare in developed countries

non-infective endocarditis

trauma- formation & platelet & fibrin thrombi on valve- red spots and nodes

norovirus

ssRNA nonenveloped-3 days to 2 weeks- contagious

oral candida

thrush

Oral cavity

has most species

Organisms that cause Systemic mycoses

histoplasmosis capsulatum, Penicilliosis marneffei, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides immitis

overpopulation of normal flora and causes cavities

fusobacteria and actinomyces

P. falciparum

jaundiced, enlarged liver, increased resp rate- severe malaria- anemia, blood in urine, edema, shock, cerebral malaria, organ failure

Paralytic Poliomyelitis

1%- enters CNS- muscle paralysis-> death

Paucibacillary

tuberculoid- hypopigmented, PNS damage

PEP- rabies treatment

Post exposure propilaxis- 5 doses over 28 days

Pericarditis

viral, bacteria or fungi- chest pain, ankle/foot sweliing, dry cough, can't breath lying down, fever

pericardium

membrane around heart- bacteria, virus and rarely fungi= pericarditis

Periodontal disease can lead to?

decay, toothloss and systemic infection

periodontitis

chronic

Pheumococcal meningitis

most common- streptococcus pneumoniae- gram +, encapsulated faculative anaerobic diplcoccus- 90 serotypes- vaccine for high risk- immune response against capsular serotype

Pheumonic

bacteria to lungs

piamater

inner

Pinworm

'seatworm'- enterobius vermicularus-nematode rectum-most common worm infection in US.

plague

Yersinia pestis- bubonic- swelling in lymph nodes, spetic

pneumonicocci can also cause?

otitis media- complication include mustoidis and meningitis

PNS

12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, ganglia, sensory receptors

Poliomyelitis

poliovirus- non enveloped ssRNA-

Post polio syndrome

symptoms 30-40 years after polio

Prion disease

TSE- transmibble spongiform encephal.- neurodegenerative disease, long incubation, always fatal, no cure-dementia, personality change, memory and brain funct.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set