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Meiosis I produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.

two ... haploid

Meiosis II typically produces _____ cells, each of which is _____.

four ... haploid

During _____ sister chromatids separate.

anaphase II

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids.

telophase I

Synapsis occurs during _____.

prophase I

Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _____.

anaphase I

During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell.

metaphase II

At the end of _____ and cytokinesis there are four haploid cells.

telophase II

During _____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell.

prophase II

A cell in anaphase of mitosis contains ___ number of chromosomes and _____ amount of DNA compared to the same cell when it was in Gap 1.

twice the, twice the

Two sister chromatids are joined at the centromere prior to meiosis. Which statement is correct?

Barring mutation, the two sister chromatids must be identical.

What process is responsible for the independent assortment of alleles?

Meiosis.

How do cells acquire homologous chromosome pairs that carry the alleles that are independently assorted?

Fusion of gametes

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the process of independent assortment?

Alleles of different genes segregate from one another in a random manner.

True or false? The principle of independent assortment is best illustrated by events that take place during metaphase II, during which sister chromatids segregate independently of each other.

False

How many genetically unique types of gametes could be produced by an individual with the genotype RrYY?

Two

Which of the following parental genotypes would yield a 1:1:1:1 phenotypic ratio in the offspring?

AaBb, aabb

During which stage of mitosis do the sister chromatids move away from each other?

Anaphase

If a cell contained 12 chromosomes, during Interphase, how many chromosomes would be present during Anaphase?

24

Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measured DNA levels ranged from 3 to 6 picograms per nucleus. One nucleus had 4 picograms of DNA. What phase of the cell cycle was this nucleus most likely in?

S

All of the following occur during mitotic prophase EXCEPT

Chromosomes are duplicated.

Replicated chromosomes can be found during which of the following stages of the cell cycle?

Metaphase

Cytokinesis in plant cells occurs through the formation of a:

Cell Plate

A cell containing 2 sets of chromosomes would be:

Diploid

A cell containing 36 chromosomes during Interphase would produce, via meiosis, daughter cells containing chromosomes.

18

A cell in Anaphase I of meiosis would contain ____________ number of chromosomes and ___________ amount of DNA compared to the same cell when it was in G2.

the same, the same

During anaphase I of meiosis a cell would contain ______________ chromosomes and ___________ pairs.

replicated, homologous

During anaphase II of meiosis a cell would contain chromosomes and pairs.

unreplicated chromosomes, homologous

Beginning with a diploid cell homologous pairs of chromosomes can be found in a cell at the end of which of the following stages of meiosis

Metaphase I

In Anaphase I of meiosis which of the following structures is moving on the spindle towards the poles? Think about the structure/s moving toward a single pole of the spindle.

Single Replicated Chromosomes

A diploid cell containing 28 chromosomes would contain ___ chromosomes during anaphase 1.

28

A parent cell containing 12 chromosomes undergoing mitosis will produce daughter cells containing _____ chromosomes.

12

What can we observe in order to visualize Mendel's Law of Segregation?

homologous chromosomes separating during meiosis I

In humans, what determines the sex of offspring and why?

The male gamete determines sex because each male gamete can contribute either an X or a Y chromosome.

Which of the following is true of an X-linked gene, but not of a Y-linked gene?

The gene is present in both males and females.

Which of these descriptions of the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel's law of segregation?

The two alleles for each gene separate as homologous chromosomes move apart during anaphase I.

Which of these descriptions of the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis explains Mendel's law of independent assortment?

The arrangement of each pair of homologous chromosomes on the metaphase plate during metaphase I is random with respect to the arrangements of other pairs.

Imagine a human disorder that is inherited as a dominant, X-linked trait. How would the frequency of this disorder vary between males and females?

Females would display this disorder with greater frequency than males.

Gregor Mendel set up a dihybrid cross with one pea plant from the parental generation (P) producing round yellow peas and the other pea plant producing wrinkled green peas. The F2 generation included 315 plants producing round yellow peas, 108 with round green peas, 101 with wrinkled yellow peas, and 32 with wrinkled green peas. How would these results have differed if pea shape and pea color had been linked genes, located close together on the same chromosome?

The F2 generation would have included a higher percentage of pea plants producing round, yellow peas.

A trait which exhibited continuous variation in a population (one in which there are not discrete phenotypes) would mostly likely be controlled by?

Multiple genes

In the following cross R/r Y/y x R/r Y/y what is the probability of producing a offspring with the genotype R/R y/y?

1/16

In the following cross G/g x G/g what is the expected ratio of offspring with the dominant and recessive phenotypes? Assume complete dominance in this question.

3 dominant : 1 recessive

A cell containing 4 sets of chromosomes would be:

tetraploid

Parents, who both have brown eyes, have 6 children with blue eyes what is the probability of their next child having blue eyes?

1/4

In the cross R/r T/t x R/R T/t what is the probability of producing an offspring that has the dominant phenotype for the "R" gene and the recessive phenotype for the "T" gene?

1/8

Hemophilia is caused by an X-linked recessive. If a man without hemophila and a woman who has hemophila have children what are the expected results?

All the sons will have hemophila

One of the daughter cells, in anaphase II, resulting from the meiotic division of a diploid cell originally containing 44 chromosomes would contain ____ chromosomes and ___ homologous pairs.

44, 22

Interphase consists of:

Gap 1, S, Gap 2

How many different types of gametes can an individual with the following gametes A/a B/a produce?

4

A homologous pair of chromosomes consists of:

two chromosomes containing the same genes

An individual with the following genotype ABC/abc could produce which of the following types of gametes? Note the linkage and assume no crossing-over.

abc

In the following cross F/f x f/f what is the expected genotypic ratio in the offspring?

1 F/f : 1 f/f

A diploid cell containing a total of 48 chromosomes would contain ____ chromosomes during anaphase of mitosis.

96

Compared to the parental cell, when it was in Gap 2, each daughter cell resulting from meiosis would contain ___ number of chromosomes and ___ amount of DNA.

half the, one quarter the

An individual with the following genotype B/b D/d G/G H/h Q/q J/j could not produce which of the following types of gametes?

b/d/g/h/q/j

A man with type AB blood and a woman with type O blood could have children with all of the following blood types except:

AB

One of the daughter cells, in interkinesis resulting from a diploid cell containing 36 chromosomes undergoing meiosis would contain ____ chromosomes and ____ homologous pairs.

18, 0

What is the probability of a heterozygous individual producing a gamete containing a recessive allele?

50%

A man has six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot. His wife and their daughter have the normal number of digits. Remember that extra digits is a dominant trait.

What fraction of this couple's children would be expected to have extra digits? Express your answer using the slash symbol and no spaces (for example, 1/16).

1/2

A black guinea pig crossed with an albino guinea pig produces 12 black offspring. When the albino is crossed with a second black one, 7 blacks and 5 albinos are obtained.
What is the best explanation for this genetic outcome?

Albino (b) is a recessive trait; black (B) is a dominant trait.

Using previous info
What are the genotypes of the parents in the first cross (the cross that produced 12 black offspring)?

BB x bb

Using previous info
What are the genotypes of the gametes and offspring in the first cross?

gametes: B and b; offspring: all Bb

Using previous info
What are the genotypes of the parents in the second cross (the cross that produced 7 black and 5 albino offspring)?

Bb x bb

Using previous info
What are the genotypes of the gametes and offspring in the second cross?

gametes: 1/2 B and 1/2 b (heterozygous parent) and b; offspring: 1/2 Bb and 1/2 bb

A man with hemophilia (a recessive, sex-linked condition) has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait.
What is the probability that a daughter of this mating will be a hemophiliac? Express your answer as a fraction using the slash symbol and no spaces (for example, 1/24), or as a whole number.

0

A man with hemophilia (a recessive, sex-linked condition) has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait.
What is the probability that a son will be a hemophiliac? Express your answer as a fraction (for example, 1/24), or as a whole number.

1/2

A man with hemophilia (a recessive, sex-linked condition) has a daughter of normal phenotype. She marries a man who is normal for the trait.
If the couple has four sons, what is the probability that all four will be born with hemophilia? Express your answer as a fraction (for example, 1/24), or as a whole number.

1/16

Red-green color blindness is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. A color-blind man marries a woman with normal vision whose father was color-blind.
What is the probability that they will have a color-blind daughter? Express your answer as a fraction using the slash symbol and no spaces (for example, 1/24).

1/4

Red-green color blindness is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. A color-blind man marries a woman with normal vision whose father was color-blind.
What is the probability that their first son will be color-blind? Express your answer as a fraction using the slash symbol and no spaces (for example, 1/24).

1/2

An individual with the genotype A/A can produce _____ type/s of gametes with respect to the "A" gene.

1

An individual with the following genotype (A/a B/b C/c d/d) could produce all of the gametes shown below except:

A/B/C/D

The random distribution, which occurs as different pairs of homologous chromosomes move into different gametes demonstrates:

Independent assortment

An individual who is heterozygous for a single gene has how many unique alleles for that gene?

2

In a cross between a true breeding red flowered rose and a true breeding white flowered rose what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the offspring? Assume red flowered is completely dominant.

all red flowered

In crossing a homozygous recessive individual with a heterozygous individual, what is the chance of getting an offspring with the homozygous recessive phenotype?

50%

In a test cross, if the individual whose genotype is unknown is actually heterozygous, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of the offspring?

1/2 dominant, 1/2 recessive

In the cross D/d F/f X D/d F/f what is the expected proportion of offspring with the genotype d/d F/f

1/8

The probability a rolling the number 2 with a pair of dice is

1/36

If a/a b/b is crossed with A/A B/B, what is the expected percentage of offspring with both recessive phenotypes?

0%

A couple has three children, all of whom have brown eyes and blond hair. Both parents are homozygous for brown eyes (BB), but one is a blond (rr) and the other is a redhead (Rr). What is the probability that their next child will be a brown-eyed redhead?

1/2

What pattern of inheritance would lead a geneticist to suspect that an inherited disorder of cell metabolism is due to a defective mitochondrial gene?

The disorder would always be inherited from the mother.

Select the correct statement(s) about sex determination in animals.

The mechanism of sex determination varies with different animal species.

A signal transduction pathway is initiated when a _____ binds to a receptor.

signal molecule

A signal molecule is also known as a(n) _____.

ligand

Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling?

transduction

Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor?

estrogen

A(n) _____ is an example of a signal molecule that can bind to an intracellular receptor and thereby cause a gene to be turned on or off.

steroid

Thyroid hormones bind to _____ receptors.

intracellular

Which of these is a logical signal transduction pathway?

A G-protein-linked receptor activates G protein, which activates phospholipase C, which cleaves a membrane lipid to form IP3, which binds to a calcium channel on the ER, which opens to release calcium ions into the cytoplasm, which bind to an intracellular enzyme that carries out a response.

If a/a b/b is crossed with A/A B/B, what is the expected percentage of offspring with both recessive phenotypes?

0%

A couple has three children, all of whom have brown eyes and blond hair. Both parents are homozygous for brown eyes (B/B), but one is a blond (r/r) and the other is a redhead (R/r). What is the probability that their next child will be a brown-eyed redhead?

1/2

Based on the cross below what fraction of offspring will have the same phenotype as the parent on the right. Assume complete dominance
A/a B/b C/c d/d X a/a B/B c/c D/D

1/4

The random distribution, which occurs as different pairs of homologous chromosomes move into different gametes demonstrates:

Independent Assortment

Linked genes:

Are on the same chromosome

Epistasis occurs when:

one gene interferes with the expression of another gene

A man with group O blood marries a woman with group O blood. Their child has group O blood What are the genotypes of the father and the child ?

i/i, i/i

In snapdragons red flowers is incompletely dominant to white flowers. This results in the heterozygous individuals having pink flowers. In a cross between a red flowered snapdragon and a pink flowered snapdragon what percentage of the offspring would be expected to have red flowers?

50%

Polygenic inheritance involves:

the additive effect of multiple genes

Hemophilia is caused by an X-linked recessive allele. Which of the following statements would be correct, if a woman who is heterozygous for this gene and a man who has normal hemoglobin have children?

half of the sons will have hemophilia

Which of the following cells in a human contain genes whose function is to specify hair color?

Skin Cells
Skin Cells and Gametes
Muscles Cells
Gametes (eggs and sperm)

Certain spontaneous mutations can cause increased risk for particular forms of cancer, for example skin cancer. Suppose that such a mutation occurs in a skin-forming stem cell on the shoulder of a 5-year-old girl, who grows up, has a child (whose father does not have such a mutation), and eventually in her 40's develops a skin cancer near the site of the original mutation. The probability that her child inherited the increased skin cancer risk is:

0%

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