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hereditary

the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring

traits

category within which alternate characteristics are observed

pollination

occurs when pollen grains produced in anthers are transferred to stigma

anthers

male reproductive parts of a flower

stigma

female reproductive parts of a flower

cross-pollination

type of pollination involving flowers of 2 SEPARATE plants; remove anthers from a flower & manually transfer to stigma of another flower of a different plant

self-pollination

pollen is transferred from anthers of a flower to stigma of EITHER the SAME FLOWER or FLOWER ON THE SAME PLANT

pure

produces offspring with the same traits

strain

term in regard to plants pure for a specific trait

P1 generation

1st parental generation

F1 generation

offspring of P1 generation; the 1st filial generation

F2 generation

2nd filial generation; generation produced after F1 generation self-pollinated

dominant

shown trait; masked/dominated the other factor for a specific characteristic

recessive

ALLELE NOT EXPRESSED; controls characteristic that did not appear in F1 generation but reappeared in F2 generation

homozygous

organism in which alleles of a pair are ALIKE

heterozygous

organism in which alleles are DIFFERENT

law of segregation

during formation of gametes, the gametes have only one copy of each allele

law of independent assortment

factors for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently

molecular genetics

study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes

allele

made of gene, each of several alternative forms of a gene (Mendel's factors)

genotype

genetic makeup of an organism & consists of 2 alleles that the organism inherits from its parents

phenotype

physical appearance of organism as result of its genotype

probability

likelihood that a specific event will occur

monohybrid cross

cross to look for 1 trait in particular; cross between individuals that involves 1 pair of contrasting traits

punnett square

diagram that aids scientists in predicting the probability that certain traits will be inherited by offspring

genotypic ratio

ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring

phenotypic ratio

ratio of offsprings' phenotypes

testcross

way to examine if something is genuinely a true-breeder; individual of unknown genotype is crossed with a homozygous recessive individual; determines that genotype of any organism whose phenotype is dominant

complete dominance

relationship in which 1 allele is completely dominant over another

incomplete dominance

neither allele is completely dominant over the other allele; F1 offspring will have a phenotype in between that of the parents; occurs when 2 or more alleles influence the phenotype—result=phenotype intermediate b/t dominant an recessive trait

codominance

both alleles for a gene are expressed in a heterozygous offspring; neither allele is dominant or recessive NOR do alleles blend in phenotype

dihybrid cross

cross between individuals that involves 2 pairs of contrasting traits; complicated b/c more possible combinations of alleles to work out

true-breeding

the parents & "ancestors" are of exact same lineage; same alleles

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