Nutrition

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An example of a behavior modification technique for weight control is to

keep a record of your eating habits

Since obesity apparently has many causes, even in a single individual, the best approach seems to be

prevention.

Which of the following is NOT a sensible guideline for diet plans?

eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food.

Which of the following is a feature of physical inactivity and energy balance?

Differences in the time obese and lean people spend lying, sitting, standing, and moving account for about 350 kcalories per day

Compared with non-obese people, obese people have a lower

physical activity level.

Obesity resulting from an increase in the SIZE of fat cells is termed

hypertrophic obesity.

Which of the following is a feature of prescription drug use for treatment of obesity?

The use of "off-label" drugs is common to take advantage of their modest weight loss effects

Which of the following is known to promote fat storage in adipocytes?

Lipoprotein lipase

Which of the following is a relation of "spot-reducing" to exercise?

No exercise can target fat removal from any specific area of the body.

Which of the following would NOT be part of a successful program of weight gain in an underweight individual?

Eat a large number of small meals

What is the Cori cycle?

A process in the liver that regenerates glucose from lactic acid released by muscles

The first sign of dehydration is typically

fatigue.

All of the following are acceptable definitions of the term fitness EXCEPT

the ability to maintain a normal body composition and remain free of injury while performing strenuous physical tasks.

What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low or moderate itensity activity?

fat

Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to replace lost fluids?

Cool water

Which of the following should be a component of a healthy diet for athletes?

Nutrient dense foods

The effect of regular exercise on heart and lung function is known as

cardiorespiratory conditioning.

Which of the following substances increases in muscles during intense exercise?

Lactic acid

What substance contains the chemical energy that drives immediate muscle contraction?

ATP

Which of the following is a benefit of glucose polymer sports drinks as compared with sugar containing drinks?

They attract less water in the GI tract and thus allow more water to remain in the circulation

To help alleviate pregnancy-related nausea, all of the following actions are recommended EXCEPT

eat large, infrequent meals so as to limit contact time with food.

A craving for non-food substances is known as

pica.

What term is given to the time period during which irreversible damage to the fetus may occur from specific events such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins?

critical period

In general, what are the chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother?

reduced quantity of milk

With few exceptions, all of the following substances and practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy EXCEPT

artificial sweeteners.

Which of the following is a characteristic of gestational diabetes?

It leads to type 2 diabetes in some women

What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status?

Infant's birthweight

What is the recommended increase in daily energy intake, in kcal, for the third trimester of pregnancy?

450

Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother's nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval BETWEEN pregnancies?

1 1/2 to 2 years

What is WIC?

A food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants

Which of the following should NOT be used to feed an infant?

Whole milk

Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics of hyperactivity in children?

In many cases, it responds favorably to dietary manipulations such as limiting sugar intake

At what age does the normal infant first develop the ability to swallow solid food?

4-6 months

A child who develops antibodies to a certain food is said to have a

food allergy.

The recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals for infants are based on the

average amounts ingested by thriving infants breastfed by well-nourished mothers.

Which of the following is a characteristic of children who regularly eat breakfast or skip breakfast?

Breakfast-skippers actually show lower scores on IQ tests than those who eat breakfast

Which of the following steps should be undertaken by the parent or guardian to ensure that young people eat well?

Control the availability of food

To lower the risk of obesity in children, which of the following practices should parents institute for their children?

Teach them to take appropriate food portions

If a child is reluctant to try a new food, it is best to

quietly remove it and try again at another time.

What should be the parent's response when a one-year-old child wants to clumsily spoon-feed himself?

Let the child try to feed himself so that he will learn

Which of the following products of digestion is NOT normally released directly into the bloodstream?

fats

After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the gastrointestinal tract?

stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon

What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?

Hydrolyzed in the GI tract

Which of the following is associated with the presence of fat in the gastrointestinal tract?

Slowing of the process of digestion and absorption

Which of the following is NOT a function of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption?

it activates pancreatic lipase

Which of the following is NOT a sphincter muscle?

duodenum

What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?

Epiglottis

Which of the following would NOT be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the intestinal tract?

Fiber

What is the primary site for absorption of nutrients?

microvillus

What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?

mucus

Which of the following types of diets has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis inflammation?

Low in saturated fat, high in omega-3 fatty acids

What is thought to be the most important nutrition concern for people with Alzheimer's disease?

Ensuring adequate intakes of antioxidant nutrients and DHA

Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly is least likely to occur from

insufficient intake of vitamin B12.

What nutrients appear to help prevent cataract formation?

vitamin C and vitamin E

To prevent and treat the high incidence of constipation in the elderly, all of the following practices are known to be effective EXCEPT

taking vitamin B12 injections.

Goals of the Older Americans Act Nutrition Program include the provision of all of the following EXCEPT

high-cost nutritious meals.

A condition that increases the likelihood of iron deficiency in older people is

poor iron absorption due to reduced stomach acid secretion and/or use of antacids.

Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism?

They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth

Which of the following describes the nutrient needs of older people?

They vary according to individual histories

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D nutrition in the elderly?

Aging reduces the kidneys' ability to convert vitamin D to its active form

Which of the following is required for the absorption of dietary vitamin B12?

Intrinsic factor

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of vitamin B6 in nutrition?

It is required in amounts proportional to energy expenditure

Which of the following is NOT among the general characteristics of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Excesses are eliminated by the kidneys

Which of the following foods in highest in folate?

Green leafy vegetables

Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of riboflavin when expressed per kcalorie?

Vegetables

Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of

folate.

Of the following commonly eaten foods, which makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?

Milk

Among the following compounds that serve as coenzymes in metabolism, which is considered a vitamin for human beings?

Biotin

Which of the following is NOT among the general characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins?

they must be consumed daily.

Which of the following is frequently affected by deficiencies of the B vitamins?

Tongue

Which of the following is NOT among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue

What tissue contains the majority of the body's store of vitamin A?

liver

All of the following are features of vitamin K in nutrition EXCEPT

gut microflora synthesis supplies sufficient amounts to meet the needs of most healthy adults.

Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet?

Vegetable oils

What feature is shared by vitamins E and K?

Supplements of either may interfere with anticlotting medications

Which of the following is a feature of vitamin D?

Fortification of milk with the vitamin is common in order to provide people with a reliable source

Which of the following is a property of the fat-soluble vitamins?

Deficiency symptoms may take years to develop on a poor diet

The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n)

antioxidant.

A person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select all of the following EXCEPT

bananas.

All of the following are characteristics of vitamin D nutrition EXCEPT

the requirement is increased in most people who are exposed to the sun.

All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance EXCEPT

lactose in the diet

Which of the following is a major function of chloride?

Helps maintain gastric acidity

Which of the following is NOT among the properties of electrolytes?

They include fat-soluble as well as water soluble particles

Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?

Certain green vegetables

Which of the following is NOT a function of water in the body?

Source of energy

Which of the following people are at known risk for potassium depletion?

Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables

What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?

Processed foods

Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?

Catalyst in energy metabolism

What is the major source of dietary sulfur?

Protein

Which of the following is a feature of the minerals in nutrition?

Once minerals enter the bloodstream, they remain in the body until excreted

Which of the following is NOT among the recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency?

anemia

All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron EXCEPT

calcium from milk.

Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?

chicken

Which of the following is a feature of copper nutrition?

It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing

When eaten in the same meal, which of the following foods enhances the absorption of iron in legumes?

Oranges

What is the major cause of iron deficiency?

Poor nutrition

Which of the following is NOT among the characteristics shared by iron and zinc?

Transport in the blood is primarily handled by albumin.

Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?

Cauliflower and broccoli

Which of the following may result from iodine deficiency?

Goiter

Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?

Meats and whole-grain cereals

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