According to Piaget, what stage of cognitive development are kids in during the "school years" period?
Concrete operational thought
Identify and describe the four logical principles of concrete operational thought .
Classification-organizations of things into groups. Transitive inference the ability to figure out the unspoken link between one fact and another.
Seriation the knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical series. Reversibility the realization that 5 times 7 equals 35, and 35 divided by 7 must be 5.
What is Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development?
Kohlberg's three levels and six stages of moral reasoning.
Level 1 Pre-conventional Moral Reasoning
Level 2 Conventional Moral Reasoning
Level 3 Post-conventional Reasoning
Based on Kohlberg's theory, which stage of moral development are kids in during the school years?
How do children, during the school years, develop with regard to their information processing.
What is selective attention?
The ability to concentrate on some stimuli while ignoring others.
What is meta-cognition?
Thinking about thinking see page 327
What do we mean when we refer to the "pragmatics" of language?
The practical use of language that includes the ability to adjust language communication according to audience and context.
According to Freud, what psycho-sexual stage of development occurs during the school years?
Latency-when emotional drives are quiet and unconscious sexual conflicts are submerged.
According to Erickson, what is the major developmental crisis that kids go through during this age period?
The tension between feeling productive and feeling useless is the fourth psycho social crisis. Industry versus inferiority.
During the school years, children develop an increased self-understanding. What does this mean?
. During the school years, children develop a much more refined me-self or self-concept, organizing
their observations of behaviors and internal states into general dispositions. Children describe themselves in
terms of psychological traits, emphasizing competencies instead of specific behaviors.
How do children's friendships change during the school years?
They become more intense an intimate. They change friends less often. They tend to choose best friends whose interests, values and backgrounds are similar to their own.
What is bullying?
Involves intentional, and largely unprovoked, efforts to harm another repeatedly. It occurs over time.
Who is most likely to become a bully (hint: there are gender differences)
Boys bully more than girls. They are often big and target smaller weaker boys.
Are there gender differences in the type of bullying that tends to occur?
Boys target smaller weaker boys using force more physical aggression. Girls are often sharp-tongued: they harass shyer, more soft-spoken girls verbal agression
Identify and describe the basic functions of the family during this developmental period (e.g., provide basic needs, encourage learning, develop self-esteem, etc...)
The way a family works to meet the needs of it's members. Children need families to provide basic material necessities, encourage learning, to help them develop self-respect, to nuture friend-ships, and to foster harmony and stability.
Describe the various types of family structures (e.g., nuclear families, blended families, etc.)
Nuclear family-headed by couples who are not legally wed. Single-parent family with one parent and no other adults. Extended family which includes other relatives, usually grandparents, aunts and uncles with two-parents.
What is puberty?
The time between the first onset of hormones and full adult physical development
When does puberty typically occur in boys and girls?
The approximate average for girls is 9 and boys is 9 1/2
What is the difference between primary and secondary sex characteristics?
Primary characteristics are parts of the body involved in reproduction. Secondary are physical traits not directly involved in reproduction but indicate sexual maturity.
What events in boys and girls indicate that they have reached puberty/matured sexually?
For girls they have their first menstrual period and boys deepening of voice and facial hair.
According to Piaget, what stage of cognitive development occurs during adolescence?
Fourth and final stage of cognitive development is Formal Operational Thought. Characterized by more systematic logical thinking and by the ability to understand and manipulate abstract concepts.
What is hypothetical thought?
Reasoning that propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality.
What is the difference between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning?
Deductive is reasoning from a general statement, premise or principle through logical steps to figure our specifics. Inductive is reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to reach a general conclusion.
Which type of thinking develops in adolescence?
What is intuitive thinking?
A thought that derives from an emotion, or hunch beyond rational explanation.
What is adolescent egocentrism?
A characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people ages 10 to 13, to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.
What is the invincibility fable?
That one cannot be harmed by anything that would defeat another person, such as speeding or doing drugs.
What is the personal fable?
That ones feeling, thoughts or experiences are unique, or more wonderful than anyone else's.
What is an imaginary audience?
The idea that someone is watching, taking notes of his or her appearance, ideas, or behaviors.
What types of decision-making are teens faced with during adolescence?
What does the research suggest about the impact of working while in school?
According to Erickson, what is the major developmental crisis that teens go through during adolescence?
Identity Crisis is only resolved with identity achievement.
According to Erickson, what is identity foreclosure?
When an adolescent adopts parent's or society's roles and values without questioning or analysis.
What is negative identity?
the assumption of a persona that is at odds with the accepted values and expectations of society
What is identity diffusion?
It refers to a period when an individual does not have an established identity, nor is actively searching for one.
What is identity moratorium?
An adolescent's choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions. Such as going to college.
Describe patterns of emotional development during adolescence.
What is suicidal ideation and para-suicide?
suicidal ideation is thinking about committing suicide. para-suicide is also called attempted suicide or failed suicide.
How does parental influence and peer influence change during adolescence?
Adolescents care more about peers at a certain age than their parents opinion.
What is parental monitoring?
Parental knowledge about their child's whereabouts, activities and companions.