the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
the First Amendment guarantee that prohibits gov't from unduly interfering with the free excercise of religion
clear and present danger
A standard used to justify limitations on speech wich will lead directly to harm of others.
(n.) a written statement that unfairly or falsely harms the reputation of the person about whom it is made; (v.) to write or publish such a statement
Tinker v. Des Moines
The case that ruled that students do not lose Constitutional rights when they entered the building but they can be limited if they cause a disruption
standard of proof
a statement of how convincing the evidence must be in order for a party to comply with his or her burden of proof; criminal: "beyond a reasonable doubt"; civil: "by a preponderance of the evidence"
preponderence of evidence
Means that when both sides present their evidence, the greater weight of the believable evidence must be on the plantiffs side
beyond a reasonable doubt
the degree of proof required of the state in a criminal prosecution; 100 percent agreement by jury
Agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense.
a crime or offense that is less serious than a felony; any minor misbehavior or misconduct
neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives
consensual bargaining process in which the parties attempt to reach an agreement resolving their dispute without the involvement of third parties
out of court settlement
When the parties and/or their attorneys in a civil dispute negotiate and work out an agreement to resolve their dispute without using the judicial system.
can't deprive citizen of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, grand jury, double jeopardy, eminent domain, no self-incrimination
the constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
writ of habeas corpus
a court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a prisoner in custody
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
New Jersey v. TLO
Supreme court case in which it was decided that a student may be searched if there is "reasonable ground" for doing so.
Miranda v. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
attempt by white Southerners to separate the races in every sphere of life and to achieve supremacy over blacks
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
A device used by southern states to disenfranchise African Americans. It restricted voting to those whose grandfathers had voted before 1867.
required states to grant citizenship to "all persons born naturalized in the U.S." and promised "equal protection of the laws."
Plessy v. Ferguson
a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
Title IX Higher Education Act
provides for gender equality on sports teams in alluniversities and colleges recieving tax dollars
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Landmark legislation that outlawed segregation in U.S. schools and public places. Began Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, prohibiting discrimination in all facets of public life and invalidated Jim Crow laws of the South.
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities