What is the layman's term for the Phylum Platyhelminthes?
What are the two major groups in Platyhelminthes?
Class trematoda or flukes
Class Cestoda or tapeworms
Describe generally what an adult flatworm looks like?
Dorsoventrally flattened, bilaterally symmetrical, w/out a true body cavity
Flatworms have a living _ and their internal body spaces are fill with what?
Filled with parenchyma, a gel-liked matrix in which the body organs are embedded
What kind of body systems do flatworms have?
No circulatory or respiratory systems
Digestive system may be incomplete/blind sac (trematoda) or absent (cestoda)
What kind of reproductive system do flatworms have?
Most are hemaphroditic, w/both male and female reproductive organs in same individual or segment
What do flatworms use the anterior sucker for and what is it called?
Used in feeding
What do flatworms use the posterior sucker for and what is it called?
Ventral sucker or acetabulum
Used for hanging on and maintaining position
Where will adult flukes live in the body?
But prefer digestive tract or related ducts, lungs, vasculature, urinary bladder
What kind of flukes are we most concerned with?
Lung flukes, GI and liver flukes, blood flukes
What kind of life cycle do digenetic trematodes have?
1 or more IH and alternation of sexual and asexual generations
What is ALWAYS the first IH for digenetic trematodes and what happens in the it?
Mollusc (snail or clam)
Several larval stages occur and asexual multiplication
What happens when the eggs are passed into the environment?
Eggs passed to outside develop to first stage larva inside
What is the first stage larva called?
What kind of environment does the trematodes need to complete the life cycle?
An aquatic environment
What happens to the miracidium/egg?
Miracidium either hatches, swims and penetrates a snail or the egg and miracidium are eaten by the snail
In snail, miracidium gives rise to other larval stages, the _ and _
Describe the differences between sporocytes and rediae.
Sporocytes- immobile, non-feeding sacs
Rediae- move around and feed
What occurs within the sporocyst and rediae stages?
What do the sporocyst/rediae eventually give rise to?
What does the cercariae do?
Leaves the snail
Then either penetrate the DH (man, dog, etc) or penetrate another IH and encyst there as metacercariae
Metacercariae may also encyst on vegetation
What is the name of the larval form in the 2nd IH?
How does a flatworm eventually enter the body
Metacercariae encysted either on plants or in/on 2nd IH are eaten by DH.
Also cercariae can penetrate the DH directly
How are trematode infections diagnosed?
Finding eggs in feces, urine or sputum
What kind of fecal test needs to be done to recover trematode eggs?
Sedimentation or direct smear because the eggs are heavy
What do trematode eggs look like?
Oval, golden to dark brown in color
Also all have an operculum
Some may or may not contain a miracidium
Flukes usually cause damage by _, by direct _, and _ trauma, by _ duct systems, by stimulating large space-occupying _ in the lungs, and by depositing their _ in organs and tissues causing _ and _ formation
Inflammation and granuloma
True/False: Humans can be directly infected by handling the infected animal
What must occur first before an infection with flatworms?
Passage thru snail, followed by cercarial shedding and formation & ingestion of metacercariae
Cercariae from bird or mammalian blood flukes will penetrate man from infested bodies of water and cause a penetration dermatitis called what?
Clam digger's itch