sociology test

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it is this one ryan

Conflict theorists would consider voting as being more of a ritualistic process than a demonstration of people exercising power in a democracy. T/F

True

Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education.

True

What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?
A. The capitialist
B. the national security administration
C.The power elite
D. the upper class

the power elite

What does status inconsistency refer to in relation to social stratification?
A. Individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions.
B. Ranking in power, wealth, and prestige must be consistent for an individual to avoid negative consequences.
C. Individuals fail to recognize the contradictions of class inequality and democratic values.
D. Individuals exhibit insecurity and inferiority when they are ranked low in prestige.

Individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions.

Which statement regarding the nation's income is MOST accurate?
A. The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.
B. Income earnings are just about evenly divided among all Americans.
C. The bottom 20 percent of Americans earn about 15 percent of the income.
D. The top two-thirds of Americans earn about two-thirds of the income.

The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.

In exchange mobility, about the same number of people move up and down the social-class ladder, which results in the overall social-class system showing little change. T/F

True

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate with respect to determining social prestige in modern society?
A.One's occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.
B. Family lineage is the primary determinant of social prestige.
C. Social prestige is based primarily on the wealth one accumulates.
D. Together wealth and power are the determining factors of social prestige.

One's occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.

What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?
A.the greater the level of education, the more births to single women
B. the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women
C. there is no relationship between the level of education and births to single women
D. the lower the level of education, the fewer births to single women

the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women

The belief by many Americans that they actually contribute to major governmental decisions through the power of their vote is referred to by Hellinger and Judd as ________.
A. constitutional mandate
B. the power of persuasion
C. the democratic facade
D. false consciousness

the democratic facade

________ are the MOST likely segment of the population in the United States to experience poverty today.
A. young single males
B. the elderly
C. children
D. middle-aged adults

children

Of the six social classes in America, the lower middle class has the highest percentage of members. T/F

True

The occupation with the highest prestige in the United States is a ________.
A. professional athlete
B. physician
C. lawyer
D. college professor

Physician

The class recognized by Kahl and Gilbert as being the upper middle class in America comprises approximately ________ percent of the U.S. population.
A. 25
B. 33
C. 8
D. 15

15

Because of the objectivity and accuracy of the poverty line concept, most sociologists agree that the concept of poverty is accurately portrayed in America. T/F

False

Politically, the social class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.
A. underclass
B. lower-middle class
C. working class
D. working poor

working class

Jim and Jan are working-class Americans making a combined income of $47,000. Today they won a $125 million lottery. How will this immediately impact their lives?
A. They will experience anomie.
B. They will experience social paranoia.
C. They will have delusions of grandeur.
D. Their lives will be more stable and fulfilling.

They will experience anomie.

If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.
A. upward
B. exchange
C. intergenerational
D. structural

exchange

What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?
A. exchange mobility
B. structural mobility
C. intergenerational mobility
D. intragenerational mobility

intergenerational mobility

The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail. T/F

True

Sociologically, an act cannot be classified as deviance if it does not cause physical or emotional harm to another individual. T/F

False

Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.
A. the need for the absolute standards in defining deviance.
B. the need for social sanctions
C. The cultural relativity of deviance
D. nonconforming behavior

the cultural relativity of deviance

What is a group's formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?
A. social control
B. the social imperative
C. social bond
D. social solidarity

social control

A serial killer has recently been convicted of the charges brought against him. In which state is he MOST likely to receive the death penalty?
A. Texas
B. North Dakota
C. Michigan
D. New York

Texas

Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ________.
A. profiling
B. stereotyping
C. sanctions
D. degradation ceremonies

degradation ceremonies

The sociologist responsible for developing one of the first control theories that addressed the inner controls of the individual and outer controls of society was ________.
A. Travis Hirschi
B. F. Ivan Nye
C. Walter Reckless
D. Jackson Toby

Walter Reckless

According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?
A. In situations where there is a strong police presence.
B. When they are applied to members of the middle or upper classes.
C. In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.
D. When we fear punishment from authorities such as parents or the court system.

In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.
A. differential association theory
B. social control theory
C. conflict theory
D. strain theory

differential association theory

The early sociologist who argued that deviance might be functional for society was ________.
A. Emile Durkheim
B. Henri Saint Simon
C. Max Weber
D. Karl Marx

Emile Durkheim

Functionalists would contend that the growing crime rates among women are the result of changing social classes and gender roles giving women greater access to illegitimate opportunities. T/F

True

Although African Americans are disproportionately represented in the state prison population, the majority of prisoners are white. T/F

False

The chances of receiving the death penalty are greatly affected by geography (where the murder took place), social class, and gender. T/F

True

Because deviance is inevitable, the more important focus is to find ways to protect people from harmful deviant acts, to find ways to tolerate behavior that is not harmful, and to develop a system of fair treatment for deviants. T/F

True

Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop with their respective groups and society. T/F

True

The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?
A. It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.
B. Deviance is analogous to mental illness.
C. Deviance is most related to functionalism because it creates a dysfunction for society.
D. The nature of one's behavior is the most important aspect in determining deviance.

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

Differential association theory was developed by sociologist ________.
A. Edwin Sutherland
B. Walter Reckless
C. Robert K. Merton
D. Frank Tannenbaum

Edwin Sutherland

Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.
A. pushes
B. inner control
C. pulls
D. formal control

inner control

The ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.
A. control
B. strain
C. labeling
D. illegitimate opportunity

strain

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