Classification

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70 terms · Fungi, Animalia, Plantae, and Plant Reproduction

Vertebrate

Animals with a backbone. (ex. cats horses, and snakes)

Invertebrate

Animals without a backbone. (ex. worms and insects)

How are organisms classified into phyla?

Body organization (cells, tissue, and organ); Body symmetry (bilateral and radial); Number of body or germ layers (unspecialized tissue from which specialized tissue develop); Presence of a complete or incomplete digestive tract; The development, or absence, of an internal body cavity called a coelom. (Jeopardy Style Question - Answer with a question)

Phylum Arthropoda

Rigid external skeleton (exoskeleton) which is composed of chitin and acts as a waterproof armour.

Phylum Arthropoda

Specialized body segments (head, thorax, and abdomen)

Phylum Arthropoda

Well developed nervous system.

Phylum Arthroda

This phylum has specialized adaptations for gaining nourishment from other living organisms (ex. plants and animals)

Phylum Chordata

This phylum has bony skeletons and backbone.

They all Had

1) Dorsal nerve cord branching to all parts of their body.

2) A notochord, a rod of cartilage, which usually only occurs in the embryo and is replaced by the backbone.

3) Gill slits in the pharynx; these develop into the ear canal in human adults.

Phylum Chordata

This phylum in has examples of both Internal and external reproduction

Three circulatory pathways

1) Two-chambered heart (Fish)
2) Three-chambered heart (Reptiles and amphibions)
3) Four-chambered heart (Humans, crocodiles, and birds)

Hyphae

Body consists of a network of filaments.

Mycelium

A network of hyphae located under the soil.

Chitin

Hard material found in the exoskeleton of insects.

Septa

The partition that divides the cell in the hyphae.

Saprophyte

Break down dead matter and recycling nutrients.

Heterotrophs

An organism that is NOT capable of producing their own food. Therefore, they obtain their energy requirements by feeding on organic matter or another organism. Example: Fungi and Animals

Extracellular Digestion

Digestion of food outside the body.

Parasitic

Where they live on a plant or animal and the host is usually harmed.

Synbiotic

Where they live on plants or animals where both benefit.

Fragmentation

Asexually way for fungi to reproduce. Hyphae are broken off and grow into new mychelium.

Spores

Some fungi reproduce by spores. Spores may be sexual or asexual depending on the species.

Fungi

This kingdom has the ability to reproduce sexually as well as asexually.

Rhizopus stolonifera

Bread mould.

Stolon

Horizontal hyphae that spreads over the bread surface.

Rhizoid

Downward growing hyphae. The secrete enzymes that digest the surrounding food and absorbs the nutrients.

Zygospore

Are produced when mating strains (+,-) fuse their nuclei together to produce the diploid zygospore.

Sporagiophores

Asexual reproduction involes the production of a third type of hyphae.

Sporangium

At the top of the sporangiophores are the sporangium which produces the spores to be released when the capsule spits open.

Deuteromycotes

This is the type of mould that produces the strong flavours in some types of cheese.

Pollination Steps

Pollen lands on the stigma.; Pollen forms a long tube.; The tube grows down the style into the ovary.; Sperm in the pollen fertilizes the egg.; The embryo develops a protective coat which encases the fruit.

Pistil

The female reproductive organ.

Stigma

Traps pollen.

Style

Supports the stigma.

Ovary

Where eggs are produced.

Stamen

The male reproductive organ.

Anther

Sperm are produced.

Sepal

Protects the young flower.

Filament

Supports the anther.

Angiosperms

Animals, wind, and water aid in pollination.

Angiosperms

The prensence of sructures in plants specific to attracting certain animal pollinators whom the plants supply with food.

Angiosperms

The way the seeds are protected within the body of the plant's fruit.

Angiosperms

The function of fruits and specialized structures in seed dispersal.

Angiosperms

The presence of specialized tissues in plants to help them survive heat. cold, and drought.

Sporophyte

Produces spores

Under proper conditions the spores grow into

Gametophyte (Awnser)

Gametophyte

Produces egg & sperm. Needs moisture for sperm to travel.

The egg and sperm unite during sexual reproduction to produce a new

Sporophyte (Awnser)

Vascular Plants

Subdivided into 2 main categories: Seedless vascular plants (ex. Ferns) and Seed producing vascular plants (ex. Trees)

Seedless Vascular Plants

Reproduced by spores and have an alteration of generation life cycle (sporophyte and gametophyte).

Seed Producing Vascular Plants

Divided into 2 main groups. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Gymnosperms

Evergreen trees

Angiosperms

Leaf and flowering plant trees

Vascular Plants

Subdivided into 2 main categories: Seedless vascular plants (ex. Ferns) and Seed producing vascular plants (ex. Trees)

Seedless Vascular Plants

Reproduced by spores and have an alteration of generation life cycle (sporophyte and gametophyte).

Seed Producing Vascular Plants

Divided into 2 main groups. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Non-Vascular Plants

No vascular tissue; use diffusion and osmosis for nutrient transport

Non-Vascular Plants

Very small plants

Non-Vascular Plants

Do not have roots, but have small root-like structures called rhizoids

Non-Vascular Plants

Contain three main divisions: mosses hornworts, and liverworts

Classification of Plants

Presence or absence of seeds and vascular tissue.

Seed

Structure made up of an embryo, stored food, and a water proof coat which allows a plant to survive periods of drought, freezing, fire, etc.

Vascular Tissue

Collection of cells arranged to carry solutions of dissolved minerals throughout the plant.

Zygospore

Are produced when mating strains (+,-) fuse thier nuclei together to produce the diploid zygospore.

Sporangiophores

Asexual reproduction involes the production of a third type of hyphae.

Sporangium

At the top of the sporangiophores are the sporangium which produces the spores to be released when the capsule spits open.

Deuteromycotes

This is the type of mold that produces the antibiotic penicillin. Deuteromycotes also produces the strong flavors in some types of cheese.

Reproduction of Fungi

Fungi have the ability to reproduce sexually as well as asexually.

Extracellular Digestion

Digestion of food outside the body.

Parasitic

Where they live on a plant or an animal and the host is usually harmed.

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