Psychology Chapter 12

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According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.

a cognitive label; physical arousal

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the:

Cannon-Bard theory.

People who are exuberant and persistently cheerful show increased activity in the brain's ________, which is rich in receptors for the neurotransmitter ________.

left frontal lobe; dopamine

In the Schachter and Singer experiment, college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter's accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment were least likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter's accomplice?

those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused

Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate:

an empathic response.

The two-factor theory of emotion would have difficulty explaining why a:

person automatically fears snakes even though he thinks they are attractive and harmless.

Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This finding supports the:

James-Lange theory.

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the:

Cannon-Bard theory.

Which theory suggests that you would not experience intense anger unless you were first aware of your racing heart or other symptoms of physiological arousal?

the James-Lange theory

Which theory of emotion implies that every emotion is associated with a unique physiological reaction?

James-Lange theory

Schachter and Singer's two-factor theory emphasizes that emotion involves both:

physical arousal and a cognitive label.

A student participating in an experiment concerned with physical responses that accompany emotions reports that her mouth is dry, her heart is racing, and she feels flushed. Can the emotion she is experiencing be determined?

No, it cannot be determined from the information given.

The guilty knowledge test is typically used to:

assess a suspect's responses to details of a crime.

The polygraph measures:

physiological indexes of arousal.

Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural pathways bypass the:

prefrontal cortex.

In the Schachter-Singer experiment, which college men reported feeling an emotional change in the presence of the experimenter's highly emotional confederate?

those receiving epinephrine but not expecting to feel physical arousal

Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another's:

eyes.

Research on nonverbal communication indicates that:

blind children who have never observed others demonstrate normal facial expressions of emotion.

The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through:

facial expressions.

Which of the following is true regarding gestures and facial expressions?

Facial expressions are universal; gestures, culture-specific.

The fact that facial expressions of emotion tend to intensify the experience of emotion serves to support the:

James-Lange theory.

Who thought that the patterns of physiological arousal that accompany emotion are not distinctly different enough to account for our many different states of emotion?

all of the above

People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and swinging their arms by their sides. This best illustrates:

the behavior feedback phenomenon.

I am an emotionally literate person who is very accurate at reading others' nonverbal behavior, detecting lies, and describing my feelings. Who am I?

a woman

The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar manner best illustrates the impact of:

human genetic similarities.

Research on nonverbal communication has revealed that:

facial expressions tend to be the same the world over, while gestures vary from culture to culture.

By exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces, researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ________ and happiness mostly from the ________.

eyes; mouth

Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the:

amygdala.

The spillover effect is best explained in terms of the:

two-factor theory.

Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is most likely to measure his:

perspiration levels.

Many psychologists are opposed to the use of lie detectors because:

polygraphs cannot distinguish the various possible causes of arousal.

In laboratory experiments, fear and joy:

increase heart rate and stimulate different facial muscles.

The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion states that:

the conscious experience of an emotion occurs at the same time as the body's physical reaction.

Which of the following was not raised as a criticism of the James-Lange theory of emotion?

People with spinal cord injuries at the neck typically experience less emotion.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, body arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the:

According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.

Cassandra's mother told her, "You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside." This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.

James-Lange

Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble"?

William James

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that:

to experience emotion is to be aware of one's physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

Emotions consist of which of the following components?

all of the above

Increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex is to ________ as increased activity in the left frontal lobe is to ________.

disgust; joy

The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion. This best illustrates:

increase heart rate and stimulate different facial muscles

I am an emotionally literate person who is very accurate at reading others' nonverbal behavior, detecting lies, and describing my feelings. Who am I?

a woman

Men and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their:

facial expressions of emotion.

The candidate stepped before the hostile audience, panic written all over his face. It is likely that the candidate's facial expression caused him to experience:

an intensification of his fear.

According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.

Cannon-Bard theory

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.

after; at the same time as

When Mr. Morgan misinterpreted his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the:

two-factor theory

A psychologist would have the greatest difficulty differentiating between anger and fear by monitoring the ________ associated with each.

heart rates

As part of her job interview, Jan is asked to take a lie-detector test. Jan politely refuses and points out that:

all of the above are true.

Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing automobile nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee's emotional volatility best illustrates the:

spillover effect.

The results of the experiment in which college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with either a euphoric or an irritated person support the idea that:

our experience of emotion depends on how we interpret the body's arousal.

Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates that:

introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.

With regard to emotions, Darwin believed that:

all of the alternatives are true.

A general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether people:

are well educated.

During World War II, promotion rates in the U.S. Air Corps were so rapid for the group as a whole that many individual soldiers in this military branch were unhappy about the speed at which they were promoted. Their unhappiness is best explained in terms of the:

relative deprivation principle.

The relative deprivation principle refers to the tendency for our personal happiness to be heavily influenced by:

others' attainments.

Jed wants his roommate Dante to help him study for a physics test. Dante is most likely to want to help after he has:

received an "A" on his psychology test.

Research suggests that people generally experience the greatest well-being when they strive for:

intimacy and personal growth.

Subjective well-being among university and college students is ________ with the extent to which love is valued and ________ with the extent to which money is valued.

positively correlated; negatively correlated

During which stage of the general adaptation syndrome is a person especially vulnerable to disease?

stage of exhaustion

Connie complains to the campus psychologist that she has too much stress in her life. The psychologist tells her that the level of stress people experience depends primarily on:

how they appraise the events of life.

Tend and befriend" refers to:

an alternative to the "fight-or-flight" response that may be more common in women.

The threat to one's immune system is greatest during the ________ phase of the GAS.

exhaustion

Ricardo has been unable to resolve a stressful relationship with a family member. To cope, he turns to a close friend for social support. Ricardo's coping strategy is an example of:

emotion-focused coping.

Which of the following would be the best piece of advice to offer a person who is trying to minimize the adverse effects of stress on his or her health?

Maintain a sense of control and a positive approach to life."

Whether a health care treatment is mainstream medicine or an alternative medicine depends on whether the treatment has been:

scientifically validated as effective.

A U.S. National Health Interview Survey found that after controlling for age, sex, race, and geographical region, the longest life expectancies were associated with those who attended religious services:

more than once a week.

Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from:

relaxation training.

The most important benefit of biofeedback is its capacity to:

facilitate the relaxation response.

Research has demonstrated that as a predictor of health and longevity, religious involvement:

rivals nonsmoking and exercise.

In the late 1960s, experiments indicated that rats could learn to slow their heartbeat if given pleasurable brain stimulation when their heartbeat decreased. This research most clearly demonstrated the potential utility of:

biofeedback.

During biofeedback training:

all of the alternatives occur.

The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to:

decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.

During the last four decades, the buying power of Americans has ________ and their self-reported personal happiness has ________.

increased; remained almost unchanged

When Professor Simon acquired a spacious new office, he was overjoyed. Six months later, however, he was taking the office for granted. His behavior illustrates the:

adaptation-level phenomenon.

Winston has a very negative academic self-concept because most of his classmates are more academically advanced than he is. Winston's experience best illustrates the:

relative deprivation principle.

Which of the following is true regarding happiness?

People who are socially outgoing or who exercise regularly tend to be happier.

After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the:

feel-good, do-good phenomenon.

Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing?

alarm reaction

Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.

Phase 2

The text defines stress as:

the process by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges.

Rats that received electric shocks were unlikely to develop ulcers if the:

rats could control the termination of the shocks.

The results of early research on biofeedback were surprising because they indicated that people could learn to control bodily functions regulated by the:

autonomic nervous system.

The adaptationlevel phenomenon refers to the:

tendency for evolution to favor organisms that adapt best to the environment.

Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of the:

relative deprivation principle.

Which of the following factors has been found to be clearly related to feelings of general happiness or life satisfaction?

having a meaningful religious faith

In order, the sequence of stages in the general adaptation syndrome is:

alarm reaction, stage of resistance, stage of exhaustion

Research on stressful life events indicates that:

those who have been recently widowed or divorced are more vulnerable to disease.

Stress has been demonstrated to place a person at increased risk of:

all of the alternatives are true.

Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack:

perceived control.

You have just transferred to a new campus and find yourself in a potentially stressful environment. According to the text, which of the following would help you cope with the stress?

All of the alternatives would help.

A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of the:

two-factor theory.

The basic components of emotion are:

expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.

Two years ago Maria was in an automobile accident in which her spinal cord was severed, leaving her paralyzed from her neck down. Today, Maria finds that she experiences emotions less intensely than she did before her accident. This tends to support which theory of emotion?

James-Lange theory

You are on your way to school to take a big exam. Suddenly, on noticing that your pulse is racing and that you are sweating, you feel nervous. With which theory of emotion is this experience most consistent?

James-Lange theory

As people experience negative emotions:

the right prefrontal cortex becomes more electrically active.

The arousal that lingers after an intense argument may intensify sexual passion. This best illustrates:

the spillover effect.

Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be advised to spend time looking intently at one another's:

eyes.

Children in New York, Nigeria, and New Zealand smile when they are happy and frown when they are sad. This suggests that:

facial expressions of emotion are universal and biologically determined

If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the:

facial feedback effect.

Researchers have found that people experience cartoons as more amusing while holding a pen with their teeth than while holding it with their lips. This finding best serves to support the:

James-Lange theory.

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.

cognitive activity

The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by:

resistance.

The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they:

are more willing to help others.

Research on the accuracy of lie detector tests suggests that they:

are more likely to declare the innocent guilty than to declare the guilty innocent.

After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin's experience can best be explained by the:

two-factor theory.

If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of the:

James-Lange theory.

A loss of perceived control tends to result in:

the suppression of immune responses.

Which of the following best explains why both million-dollar lottery winners and paraplegics report similar levels of happiness?

the adaptation-level phenomenon

Stress is defined as:

the process by which we perceive and respond to challenging or threatening events.

The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the:

body's response to prolonged stress.

Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack:

perceived control.

The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the:

body's response to prolonged stress.

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