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Ch. 8. Digestion For Jan. 7th, 2010

gastrostomy

surgically creating an opening of the stomach

Anoscopy

visual examination of the anal canal & lower rectum

Anorexia

loss of appetite for food, especially when caused by disease

Cirrhosis

progressive degenerative disease of liver, caused by excessive alcohol use or by viral hepatitis B or C

Cholecystalgia

pain in the gallbladder

hematemesis

vomiting of blood

botulism

rare, but serious condition transmitted through contaminated food or infected wound

Esophageal Varices

enlarged & swollen veins @ lower end of esophagus

metabolism

includes all of the process involved in body's use of nutrients

melena

black, tarry & foul smelling stools

Ileostomy

surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum @ end of small intestine & outside of abdominal wall

hemoccult

hidden blood in stool

volvulus

the twisting of the intestine on itself, that causes obstruction

Pyloric spincter

ring like muscle that controls the flow from stomach to the duodenum of small intestine

proctoplasty

surgical repair of rectum

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

liver

secretes bile & enzymes to aid in digestion of fats

Emesis

reflex ejection of stomach contents through the mouth

anastomosis

surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures

gastrorrhea

excessive secreation of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach

cholelithiasis

presence of gallstone in gallbladder or bile ducts

inguinal hernia

protusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in lower abdominal wall or groin

herpes labialis

blister-like sores on lips & adjacent facial tissue that are caused by oral herpes simplex virus type 1

aerophagia

excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, common cause of gas in stomach

bororygmus

rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine.

Papillae

tough protective covering, in some areas small bumps

Edentulous

without teeth

epiglottis

lid like structure that closes off the entrance to the trachea to prevent food & liquids from moving from the pharynx during swallowing

lower esophageal sphincter

muscular ring controls the flow between the esophagus & stomach

pyloric sphincter

ring like muscle that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum of the small intestine

Liver

large organ located in the (R) upper quadrant of the abdomen

Bile

which aids in the digestion of fats, is a digestive juice secreted by the liver, travels from the gallbladder, where it is concentrated and stored

bolus

a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed

Peristalsis

series of wave like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction

Chyme

semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric sphincter and into the small intestine

Herpes labialis

are blister like sores on the lips & adjacent facial tissue that r caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1

Gingivitis

earliest stage of periodontal disease, inflammation affects only the gums

Dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

Also known as GERD, is upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus

Esophageal varices

are enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus.

Gastrorrhea

excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucus in the stomach

Peptic Ulcers

are sores that affect the mucous membranes of the digestive system

Gastric ulcers

are peptic ulcers that occur in the stomach

Cachexia

condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight & muscle mass that occurs in pts with diseases such as advance cancer or AIDS

Obesity

excessive accumulation of fat in the body

Hematemesis

is the vomiting of blood

Hyperemesis

extreme vomiting that can cause dehydration

Regurgitation

return of swallowed food into mouth

intestinal obstruction

partial or complete blockage of the small or large intestine

Salmonellosis

is transmitted by food that is contaminated by feces

Jaundice

yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes

Cholangitis

acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen, fever, jaundice

Cholecystalgia

pain in the gallbladder

Cholecysitist

inflammation of the gallbladder

Cholelithiasis

presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

anaoscopy

visual examination of the anal canal & lower rectum

antiemetic

medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting

Gastrostomy tube

surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach, this tube, which is placed permanently provides nutrition for pts who cannot swallow or take sufficient nutrients by mouth

Gastroduodenostomy

establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum

ileostomy

surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall

Proctoplasty

surgical repair of the rectum

Cholecystectomy

surgical removal of gallbladder

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