Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Chapters 9-11

high; low

Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ________ reliability and ________ validity.

125

An 8-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of

add new words to their vocabulary

The principles of learning emphasized by B. F. Skinner are most helpful in explaining why children

overconfidence

Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit

the Flynn effect

Increasing years of schooling over the last half century have most likely contributed to

belief perseverance

When her professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised for a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Although she subsequently learned that the professor's limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, she continued thinking the professor was unfriendly. Judy's reaction best illustrates

24

The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of ________ months.

prototype

We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ________ of a bird.

heritability

The extent to which differences in intelligence among a group of people are attributable to genetic factors is known as the ______ of intelligence.

framing

Students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of

savant syndrome

Although diagnosed with autism and hardly able to speak coherently, 18-year-old Andrew can produce intricate and detailed drawings of scenes he has viewed only once. Andrew illustrates a condition known as

emotional intelligence

When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister's opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister's frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates

spelling bee

Girls are likely to outperform boys in a

representative heuristic

A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of

factor analysis

Which procedure is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie people's intelligence scores?

analytical intelligence

Superior performance on the Stanford-Binet most clearly corresponds with Sternberg's concept of

linguistic determination

Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This illustrates

stereotype threat

Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of

babbling

Vocal sounds that are not included in one's native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ________ stage of language development.

a critical period

Those who learn sign language as teens never become as fluent as children exposed to sign language from birth. This best illustrates the importance of ________ for mastering language.

an algorithm

To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of

cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness

Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to

the resolution phase

During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin?

decrease in their metabolic rate

In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)

decrease in their metabolic rate

In a classic experiment, obese patients whose daily caloric intake was dramatically reduced lost only 6 percent of their weight. This limited weight loss was due, at least in part, to the fact that their dietary restriction led to a(n)

"Reduce your weight gradually over a period of several months."

According to researchers, which of the following would be the BEST advice or encouragement to offer someone who wants to lose excess weight?

ventromedial hypothalamus; overeat

Destruction of the ________ causes an animal to ________.

anorexia nervosa

Lindsey is extremely afraid of becoming obese even though she is underweight. She often checks her body in the mirror for any signs of fat and refuses to eat most foods because she insists they are fatty or high in calories. Lindsey most clearly demonstrates symptoms of

instinct theory

Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetic predispositions?

homosexual behavior

When pregnant sheep were injected with testosterone during a critical period of fetal development, their female offspring later demonstrated

bulimia nervosa

To lose some of the weight she gained from binge eating, Melissa uses laxatives and exercises until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of

self-esteem

Our ________ is said to be a gauge of how socially accepted we feel.

obesity

One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of

maintain homeostasis

By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to

STIs

Teenage girls are especially vulnerable to ________ because of their lower levels of protective antibodies.

belongingness

The stress normally experienced by immigrants is lessened by chain migration. This best illustrates the importance of ________ needs.

With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation

Which of the following is NOT true with respect to sexual orientation?

sleep deprivation

People are more vulnerable to obesity if they experience

drive-reduction theory

Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation?

incentives

Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of

resistance

The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by

relative deprivation

Professor Crane was ecstatic when he learned that his research study had been approved for publication. His feelings of joy quickly dissipated, however, when he heard a colleague recently had three different research articles accepted for publication. His declining emotional satisfaction is best explained in terms of

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

After receiving exciting news about the birth of a healthy grandson, Mr. Haney was easily persuaded to contribute a generous sum of money to a neighborhood church. This best illustrates the

facial feedback effect

If people wrinkle their noses in disgust when presented with a strange-looking food, they are likely to experience an increasingly intense emotional aversion to the food. This best illustrates the

the James-Lange theory

If you mimic another person's facial expressions of emotion, you probably will feel increasing empathy for that person. This is best explained in terms of

James-Lange theory; two-factor theory

Evidence that emotion precedes physiological arousal would be most inconsistent with the ________. Evidence that emotion comes after mentally labeling our physiological arousal would be most consistent with the ________.

stress appraisal

One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and experiences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of

the catharsis hypothesis

Luciano believes that the best way to get over the anger he feels toward his high school teacher is to scream shameful profanities while hitting a punching bag. His belief best illustrates

dilation of his pupils

Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by

epinephrine

The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of ________ into the bloodstream.

adaptation-level phenomenon

A celebrity actress experiences ever-increasing levels of professional acclaim following each successful movie role. Yet with each success, she experiences no more than a temporary surge of subjective well-being. This is best explained in terms of the

left frontal lobe

Exuberant infants and alert, energetic adults are especially likely to show high levels of brain activity in the

believe they cannot change a stressful situation

People tend to use emotion-focused rather than problem-focused coping strategies when they

respiration

A lie detector test using a polygraph monitors a person's

bone marrow

B lymphocytes are formed in the

Andre, a competitive, easily-angered journalist

Who is the best example of a Type A personality?

facial expressions

The most universally understood way of expressing emotion is through

emotion-focused coping

After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior best illustrates

survive longer

Religiously active AIDS patients ________ than do their nonreligious counterparts

increases; increases

Aerobic exercise ________ the body's production of serotonin and ________ its production of the endorphins.

amygdala

The instantaneous and automatic fear response we experience when unexpectedly stumbling upon a snake illustrates the importance of the

lying

We find it especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are

guilty knowledge test

An approach to lie detection that assesses a suspect's physiological response to details of a crime known only to police investigators is called the

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set