when: 2 or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food; an investigation in conducted by state and local authorities; outbreak confirmed by lab.
Biological: viruses, parasites, fungi, bacteria. Chemical:cleaners, sanitizer, polishes. Physical: glass, bones, metal shavings etc. (PATHOGENS ARE THE GREATEST THREAT)
How Food becomes Unsafe
Purchasing food from unsafe sources; Failing to cook food correctly; Holding food at incorrect temperatures; Using contaminated equipment; Poor personal hygiene.
Four main factors of unsafe food
Time-Temperature Abuse; Cross-Contamination; Poor Personal hygiene; Poor Cleaning and Sanitizing.
TCS Foods: Time-Temp Control for Safety
On these foods pathogens will grow: Milk and Dairy, Shelled Eggs, Meat: beef, pork, lamb, Poultry, Fish, Shellfish and crustaceans, Baked Potatoes, Heat-treated plant food (rice, beans, veggies), Tofu or Soy products, Sprouts and sprout seeds, Cut veggies or fruits, Untreated Olive Oil mixtures.
Inspects all food except meat, poultry, and eggs. Issues a Model Food Code (recommendations for food safety regulations)
Inspects meat, poultry, and eggs. Also regulates food that crosses state boundaries or involves more than one state.
Presence of harmful substances in food, many found in the animal we get the food from. Passed from person-to-person, through sneezing or vomiting, from touching dirty food-contact surfaces, equipment then touching food.
Foodborne Illness Symptoms
Diarrhea, vomiting, fever, nausea, abdominal cramps, jaundice. Symptoms can appear from 30 minutes to 6 weeks.
Doubles every 20 minutes. Needs FAT TOM to grow (Food, Acidity, Temp, Time, Oxygen, Moisture).
Food, Acidity- grow best with little or no acid, a 7 on the PH scale, Temp- Danger zone: 41-135, Time, Oxygen: most bacteria need oxygen, Moisture- grows well with high moisture (water activity scale). (a with little w next to it)
Bacteria: Salmonella Typhi
Ready-to-eat food, Beverages. Prevention: exclude food handlers with it. Wash hands. Cook food to a minimum temp
Bacteria: Shigella spp.
TCS foods, Contaminated water. Prevention: Exclude food handlers with it, Exclude handlers who have diarrhea, Wash hands, Control Flies!
Bacteria: Enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing (E-COLI)
Ground beef, Contaminated Produce. Prevention: Exclude food handlers with it, Cook food to min temps, Purchase produce from approved and reputable source, Prevent Cross-contamination.
Not destroyed by normal cooking temps. Carried by humans and animals. Practice good personal hygiene to prevent.
Virus: Hepatitis A
Ready-to-eat Food, Shellfish from contaminated water. Prevention: Exclude staff with it, Exclude staff with Jaundice, Wash hands, Avoid bare-contact with ready-to-eat food, Purchase shellfish from approved and reputable buyers.
Ready-to-eat food, Shellfish from contaminated water. Prevention: Exclude staff with it, Exclude staff with Diarrhea, Wash hands, Avoid bare-contact with ready-to-eat food, Purchase shellfish from approved and reputable buyers.
Require a host to live and reproduce. Commonly associated with Seafood, Wild game, and food processed with contaminated water like Produce. Prevention: Approved supplier, Cook to min temp, Frozen correctly by manufacturer.
Pathogens, sometimes on the skin of fish. Cant be destroyed by cooking or freezing. Ciguatera is found on amberjack, barracuda, snapper and is a Biological toxin.
Cleaners, Sanitizers, Polishes, Machine lubricants, Pesticides. Certain kitchenware and equiptment can be a risk.
Chemical Contaminant Prevention
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)- contains important safety info about the chemicals around. Prevention: Purchase from good supplier, store away from prep areas, NEVER store chemicals above food, use only for intended purpose, only handle food with equipment approved for food use. Make sure labels on original containers are readable, Keep MSDS current, follow disposal instructions.
Deliberate Food Contamination
Terrorists or activists, Disgruntled current or former staff, Vendors, Competitors. FDA created A.L.E.R.T.
Assure- make sure product you receive are from a safe place. Supervise deliveries, approved suppliers, request delivery vehicles are locked or sealed.
Look- monitor security of products. limit access to prep and storage areas, create system for handling damaged products, store chemicals safely, train staff.
Employees- know them, limit access, identify all visitors, background check on staff.
Reports- keep info related to food defense accessible. receiving logs, staff files, random self-inspections.
Threat- Identify what you will do if suspicious activity occurs. Hold any product suspected of contamination. Contact authority immediately, maintain emergency contact list.
Responding to a Foodborne-Illness Outbreak
Gather info, Notify Authorities, Segregating the product, Document info, Identify staff, Cooperate with authorities, reviewing procedures.
Food Allergen Symptoms/Prevention
Symptoms: Nausea, Wheezing or shortness of breath, Hives, Swelling, Vomiting or Diarrhea, Abdominal Pain.
Prevention: Describe dishes, Identify ingredients, suggesting items, hand-delivered and brought separately .
Avoiding Cross-Contamination with allergies
Allergies: Wash rinse sanitize cookware and utensils, wash hands and change gloves, use separate fryers and cooking oils, Prep food for allergy customers in separate area, Label food packaged onsite.
Situations that can contaminate food
Food Handlers who: Have a Foodborne illness, Have wounds with pathogens, Sneeze or cough, Contact with ill person, touch something that could contaminate like a cigarette, have symptoms like jaundice diarrhea or vomiting. ***Staphylococcus aureus is in 30-50% of healthy adults on their skin. Food handlers transfer this when they touch infected areas then food without washing hands.
Actions that can Contaminate food
Scratching scalp, Running fingers through hair, Wiping or touching the nose, Rubbing an ear, Touching a pimple or infected wound, Wearing a dirty uniform, Coughing or sneezing in hand, Spitting.
Good Personal Hygiene
Hand practices (washing, hand care, glove use, prevent bare-hand contact with ready-to-eat food); Personal Cleanliness, Clothing, Hair restraints and jewelry.
ONLY WASH IN HAND-WASHING SINK. wash for 20 seconds. How: run hands under hot water, apply soap, scrub for 10-15 seconds, use running warm water, dry with single use paper towel. Only use hand sanitizer after washing hands, never instead. Allow to dry before touching food or equipment.
Single use only, never reuse. Approved, Disposable, Multiple sizes, Latex alt. How To: after washing and drying hands, never blow into, never roll them to be easy to get on. Change when: become dirty or torn, before beginning new task, after interruption, after handling raw meat, seafood, or poultry, before handling ready-to-eat foods.
Hair restraints, nothing that could be a physical contaminant. Clean Clothing. Aprons, never wipe hands on apron. Jewelry: remove: rings except plain bands, bracelets, watches.
Eat, Drink, Smoke, Chew Gum or Tobacco: when prepping food, when working in prep areas, when working in cleaning areas.
Reporting Health Issues
Make sure staff reports being sick. Present signed statements where staff agrees to report being ill. Providing documentation showing staff completed training. Posting signs that remind staff to notify when ill.
Flow of Food
Purchasing, Receiving, Storing, Preparation, Cooking, Holding, Cooling, Reheating, Serving.
Use separate equipment, Clean and sanitize, Prep food at different times, Buying prepared food.
Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer
checks temp from 0-220. Use to check hot and cold cooking units. Measures through metal stem. Insert in food up to the dimple. Use calibration nut to adjust thermometer.
Thermocouples and Thermistors
Measure temps through metal probe. Temps displayed digitally. Sensing area is at the tip of the probe. good for thick and thin food.
Use for internal temp of food. Especially useful for checking the temp of thin food like hamburger patties or fish fillets
Infrared (laser) Thermometers
Measures the temp of food and equipment surfaces. Don't take readings through glass of metal.
General Thermometer Guidelines
Cleaning and Sanitizing: wash rinse and sanitize, air-dried. Calibrate, Accuracy must be up to +/- 2 degrees. Glass thermometers can break and are risky. check in thickest part of meat.
Approved reputable source. Deliver when staff is present for inspections. Key drop deliveries. Rejecting Items. Recalls: can occur if food contamination is suspected or confirmed, if falsely labeled. When notified of a recall: identify items, remove item from inventory, Label item to prevent being put back in inventory, Refer to recall notice for what to do with the item.
Check food with thermometer. Cold food: below 41 degrees. Live Shellfish: air temp- 45 degrees, internal, no more than 50 then cooled to below 41 in four hours. Shucked Shellfish: receive at 45 or lower. cool to below 41 in four hours. Milk: receive at 45, cool to 41 or lower in 4 hours. Shell Eggs: receive at 45 or lower. Hot Food: receive hot TCS food at 135 or higher. Frozen food: solid when received.
Purchasing/Receiving: Reject if:
Packaging is tampered with, leaks, dampness, water stains, signs of pests, expiration dates are wrong.
Label, Date Mark, Temperatures, Rotation, PRevent Cross-contamination. Cleaning, Storage order, storage location.
Storing: Date Marking
Ready-to-eat TCS foods can only be stored for 7 days if held at 41 or lower. Count begins when food was prepared.
41 or lower, 135 or higher. Frozen food frozen. Make sure units have an air temp measuring device. Don't overload coolers or freezers. Use open shelving, don't line shelves with aluminum foil or pans. Monitor foods regularly.
Storing: Preventing Cross-Contamination
Store in designated areas. Keep 6 inches off the floor. Store single-use items in original packaging. Store food in items meant for food, make sure they're durable, leak proof, sealed or covered. Never: use empty chemical containers for food and vice versa.
Wrap or cover food. From Top to Bottom: Ready-to-eat, Seafood, Whole cuts of beef and pork, Ground meat and ground fish, Whole and ground poultry. Only store food in food places.
Make sure workstations, cutting boards and utensils are clean and sanitized. Only remove as much as you can prep in a short period of time. Return prepped food to the cooler. If using Additives: only use if approved, Never use more than allowed, Never use additives that alter outside appearance. Don't sell produce that was treated with sulfites. Never add sulfites.
DONT USE THE FOLLOWING: food additives or dolor additives, colored overwraps, lights. Food must be thrown out if presented falsely. Corrective Actions: food that has become unsafe must be thrown out unless it can be safely reconditioned. Throw out if: handled by staff with illness, when contaminated by hands or bodily fluids of mouth or nose, exceeded time and temp requirements.
NEVER thaw at room temperature. Thaw TCS in the following ways: in a cooler of 41 degrees or lower. Submerged in running drinkable water at 70 or lower. NEVER let the temp of food go above 41 for longer than 4 hours including time it takes to thaw and prep or cool. Microwave to thaw only if cooked immediately after. must be cooked in conventional cooking equipment. Also can be thawed as part of the cooking process.
Avoid cross-contamination. Wash Produce under running water (especially important before cutting, cooking or combining with other ingredients)--> water should be a little warmer than the produce. remove outer leaves of produce. water with ozone helps treated produce and controls pathogens.
When soaking or storing produce in standing water or an ice-water slurry, DO NOT mix different items or multiple batches of the same item. Refrigerate fresh produce 41 or lower. If you serve high-risk populations don't serve raw seed sprouts. Pooled Eggs: (cracked and opened and combined in a bowl or container) cook promptly after mixing, store at 41 or below. Pasteurized Eggs: consider using this when prepping egg dishes that need little or no cooking. like caesar salad dressing, hollandaise etc.
Salads with TCS food: pasta, chicken, and potatoes can only be used if cooked, held, and cooled correctly. Storing leftovers: throw out leftovers food after 7 days.
ICE: make from water that is safe to drink. Never use ice that was used to keep food cold. Always use clean and sanitized containers and scoops. Store scoops outside the ice machine. NEVER hold ice in containers that had raw meat, seafood, or poultry, or chemicals. Never touch ice with hands or use glass to scoop.
Preparation: Special Requirements
need a Variance (document issued by regulatory authority that allows a regulatory requirement to be waived or changed. Need Variance for: packaging fresh juice, unless has a warning label; Smoking foods as a way to preserve (not to enhance flavor); Using food additives like vinegar to preserve or alter food so doesnt need Time-temp control; Curing food; Custon-processed animals for personal use (hunter brings deer to restaurant for dressing and take meat home for later use); Packaging food using a Reduced Oxygen Packaging (ROP); Sprouting seeds or beans; Offering live shellfish from a display tank.
How to Check Temperatures
Pick a Thermometer with a probe thats the right size. Check temp in the thickest part of the food. take at least 2 readings in different locations.
135: fruit, veggies, grains, and legumes that are hot held
145 for 4 minutes: roasts of pork, beef, veal, and lamb. Roasts may be cooked at alternate cooking times and temp depending on oven (lower the temp longer the cook).
145 for 15 seconds: seafood, steaks/chops or pork, beef, veal, lamb, commercially raised game, shell eggs that will be served immediately.
155 for 15 seconds: ground meat, injected meat, mechanically tenderized meat, ratites (ostrich and emu), ground seafood, shell eggs that will be hot held.
165 for 15 seconds: Poultry, stuffing with meat, fish or poultry, stuffed meat, seafood or pasta, Dishes that include previously cooked TCS food.
Cooking TCS food in a Microwave
Meat, Seafood, poultry, and eggs cooked in a microwave must be cooked to 165. Also: Cover food to prevent surface from drying out. Rotate or stir halfway through. Let the covered food stand for at least 2 minutes after cooking to let temp even out. Check temp in at least 2 places to make sure cooked fully.
Partial Cooking During Preparation
Do Not cook food longer than 60 minutes during initial cooking. Cool food immediately. Freeze or refrigerate after cooling 41 or lower. Heat food to at least 165 for 15 seconds before selling or serving. Cool the food if not served immediately.
FDA advises against serving raw or undercooked meat, poultry, seafood, or eggs on a kids menu.
Temp Requirements for Cooling Food
Cool TCS food from 135 to 41 degrees within 6 hours. TOTAL COOLING TIME= no more than 6 hours.
First, cool food from 135 to 70 degrees within 2 hours. Then cool it from 70 to 41 within the next 4 hours. If food has not reached 70 within 2 hours, it must be reheated then cooled again.
Methods for Cooling
the denser the food, the slower it will cool. the bigger, the slower. reduce size for faster cooling. stainless steal transfers heat away faster than plastic, as do shallow pans vs deep one. NEVER cool large amounts of hot food in a cool, it will just make the cooler warm. Ice water bath, Blast chiller, Ice paddle, Ice or cold water as ingredient. Loosely cover food before storing for further cooling.
For Immediate Service: as long as cooked and cooled correctly, reheat to any temperature.
For Hot-Holding: Internal Temp to 165 for 15 seconds within 2 hours. These guidelines apply to all reheating methods.
Hold hot food at 135+, Hold cold food at 41 or lower.; Use a thermometer to check internal temp. (never use a temp gauge on holding unit to find internal temp, gauge doesn't check internal temp.); Check food temp at least every 4 hours. Throw out if not 41 or below or 135+. can clock temp every 2 hours to keep track. Never use hot-holding equip to heat unless made to do so. Reheat food correctly then bring to the holding unit.
TCS Food Without Temp Control
If no electricity at event, if display food for short time.
Cold Food: without temp control for up to 6 hours if: you hold at 41 or lower before removing it from refrigeration, label food with time you removed it and the time you must throw out which is 6 hours from the time you removed the food from refrig., Make sure food temp doesnt exceed 70 while being served. If not throw out. Sell, Serve, or Throw out within 6 hours.
Hot Food: without temp control, up to 4 hours if:
-hold temp at 135 or higher before removing temp control
-Label food with time must throw out, 4 hours
-Sell Serve or throw within 4 hours.
Serving: Kitchen Staff Guidelines
Food handlers must wear single-use gloves when handling ready to eat foods. Alt. : handle food with tongs, spatulas, etc.
Clean and sanitize utensils at least once every 4 hours.
Utensils need a handle extending above the rim, or can be placed on cleaned and sanitized food contact surface. Or stored under running water.
-Hold dishes by bottom or edge; Hold glasses by middle, bottom or stem; DO NOT touch the food contact areas of the dishes.
-Carry glasses in a rack or on a tray to avoid touching the food contact surfaces. DO NOT stack glasses when carrying them.
-Hold flatware by handle, DO NOT hold by food
-Avoid bare contact surface; store so can grasp handle not area
-Use ice scoops or tongs for ice. Never use a glass or bare hands.
Table settings do not need to be wrapped or covered if extra, or unused if: removed when guests are seated; If they remain on the table, they need to be cleaned and sanitized.
-DO NOT re-serve food returned by one customer to another customer.
-Protect condiments from contamination. Never reuse uncovered condiments. DO NOT combine leftover condiments with fresh ones.
-DO NOT re-serve uneaten bread to other customers, change linens in bread basket after each customer.
-NEVER re-serve plate garnishes, such as fruit or pickles. Throw out unused garnish.
-Prepackaged food: in general only if unopened and in good conditions. includes condiment packets and wrapped crackers. You may reserve bottles of ketchup, mustard and other condiments. containers must remain closed between users.
Self-Service Areas: Protection
Use a sneeze guard. They should be 14 inches above the counter and should extend 7 inches beyond the food. Or use a display case or packaging. Whole raw foods that need opening dont need protection
Label foods. Keep food hot, above 135 or cold below 41. Raw ready to eat cannot be offered self service, Except for: if its a salad bar or sushi buffet, a ready to cook portion that will be cooked and eaten immediately like Fire and Ice, or raw and frozen shell on shrimp or lobster.
Self-Service Area: Refills
DO NOT let customers refill dirty plates or use dirty utensils at self-service areas. PAthogens such as Norovirus can be transferred by reused items. Assign a staff member to monitor. Post signs reminding customers not to reuse.
Self-Service: Labeling Bulk Food
bulk food must be labeled. Bulk unpackaged food like bakery products and unpackaged food portions do not need to be labeled if: product makes no claim regarding health or nutrient content, no laws requiring health label, food is manufactured or prepared on the premise, the food is manufactured or prepped at another food place or processing plant owned by the same person. operation must be regulated.
-Pack Food in insulated containers. should be desinged so food cant mix leak or spill.
-Delivery vehicles: clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly.
-Check internal temp
-Label and reheat and service instructions for staff at offsite place.
-Place needs correct utilities: safe water, garbage containers away from food prep, storage, and serving areas.
-Storage: raw meat separately
Vending Operators need to protect food from contamination and time-temp abuse during transport, delivery, and service.
-Check product shelf life Throw out if not sold within 7 days of Prep
-Keep TCS food at correct temp
-Dispense TCS food in original container
-Wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels before putting in a machine.
Overview of Food Safety Management
Personal Hygiene program, Food safety training program, Supplier selection and specification program, Quality control and assurance programs, Cleaning and sanitizing program, Standard operating procedures (SOPs), Facility design and equipment management program, and a Pest-Control Program
5 Common Risk Factors for Food Borne Illness
-Purchasing food from unsafe sources
-Failing to cook food correctly
-Holding food at incorrect temps
-Using contaminated equipment
-Practicing poor personal hygiene
if you prevent this and anticipate risks its called active managerial control
FDA Public Health Interventions
The FDA provides specific recommendations for controlling the common rick factors for food borne illness. known as Public Health interventions.
-Demonstration of knowledge
-Staff Health Controls
-Controlling hands as a vehicle of contamination
-Time and temp parameters for controlling pathogens
The Seven HACCP Principles
1. Conduct a hazard analysis
2. Determine critical control points (CCPs)
3. Establish critical limits
4. Establish monitoring procedures
5. Identify corrective actions
6. Verify that the system works
7. Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
1 and 2 help to identify and evaluate your hazards; 3,4,5 help you establish ways for controlling hazards;
6 and 7 maintain the HACCP plan and system and verify its effectiveness.
HACCP is for specific points in time. You must register your plan. Your monitoring Procedures must be very specific.
HACCP Specialized Processing Methods
-Smoking food for preservation (not flavor)
-Using food additives or adding vinegar to preserve or alter
-Custom-processing animals like dressing deer in an operation for personal use
-Packaging food using airtight stuff: Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes are risks to food packaged in these ways
-Treating juice on-site, and packaging for later sale
-Sprouting seeds or beans
NSF is an organization that creates national standards for foodservice equipment. needs to be nonabsorbent, smooth, and corrosion resistant.
Floor-mounted equipment: at least 6 inches high, or seal it to a masonry base.
Tabletop Equipment: Put tabletop equipment on legs at least 4 inches high, or seal it to the countertop.
Dishwashers need water temp, water pressure, and cleaning and sanitizing chemical concentration.
Handwashing stations should be put in areas that make it easy for staff to wash hands often. they are Required in Restrooms. and are Required in areas used for Food Prep, Service and Dishwashing.
-HW Stations need: Hot and Cold running water, Soap, a Way to dry hands, a Trash container, and Signage.
Water and Plumbing: Cross-Connection
a physical link between safe water and dirty water which can come from drains, sewers, or wastewater sources.
Water and Plumbing: Backflow
best way to prevent is to avoid creating a cross-connection. DONOT attach a hose to a faucet unless a backflow prevention device is attached. The only sure way to prevent backflow is to create an Air Gap. An Air Gap is an air space that separates a water supply outlet from a potentially contaminated source. (2 airgaps one between faucet and top of sink the other below between the place the water leaves and the drain)
Garbage removal: should be removed from prep area as quickly as possible. make sure not to contaminate while removing. Cleaning of Containers: DONOT clean near prep or food-storage areas. Indoor Containers: must be leak-proof, waterproof, pest proof, and easy to clean, and covered when not in use. Need Designated storage areas away from food and food-contact surfaces. Outdoor Containers must be on a surface that is smooth, durable, and nonabsorbent. (Asphalt and Concrete are good)
Emergencies that Affect the Facility
Imminent Health Hazards (significant threat to health).
-Temp Control: power failures and refrigeration breakdowns.
-Physical security: Unauthorized people are a risk.
-Drinkable water supply: Broken water mains and breakdowns at treatment facilities. Also Terrorist contamination. If the risk is significant, service must be stopped.
Must reestablish the physical security of the operation.
1. Deny pests access to the operation (check all deliveries before they enter, refuse if bad)
2. Deny pests food, water, and shelter (Throw out garbage quickly, Store food and supplies quickly, Clean spills immediately)
3. Work with a licensed pest control operator (PCO)
water must be at least 171 and items must be soaked for atleast 30 seconds or run through high temp dish washer.
Chlorine, Iodine, and Quaternary Ammonium. if a detergent-sanitizer blend you can use once to clean and a second time to sanitize.
factors: concentration (use test kit in ppm, change solution when dirty), temp, contact time (specific time, Chlorine >7 seconds, and Iodine or Quats > 30 Seconds), water hardness (amount of minerals), and pH.
How to Clean and Sanitize
1. Scrape or remove food
2. Wash the surface
3. Rinse the surface
4. Sanitize the surface
When to Clean and Sanitize
After used, Before food handlers start working with diff types of food, Anytime food handlers are interrupted, after 4 hours if in constant use.
Cleaning Stationary Equipment
2. Take away Removable parts
3. Scrape food
4. Wash equipment surfaces
5. Rinse equipment
7. Allow to Air-dry
Machines either use hot water or a chemical sanitizing solution. Hot water needs to be hot enough but not too hot to bake on food to items. Must be atleast 180 degrees. For stationary rack, it must be atleast 165 degrees.