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Exam 4 Bio 182

exchange of gases between an organism and the environment

What is respiration?

Respiration

What is the exchange of gases between an organism and the environment

require continuous supply of oxygen and release excess carbon dioxide from body

Describe the general process of gas exchange for most animals.

Organismic and Cellular

What are the two different phases of respiration?

Organismic

What phase of respiration requires oxygen from the environment being taken up by animal and delivered to individual cells and where carbon dioxide is excreted into the environment?

Carbon dioxide is excreted into the environment, and oxygen from the environment is taken up by animal and delivered into individual cells

What is organismic respiration?

Organismic

What respiration phase is known as breathing?

Cellular

What phase of respiration takes place in the mitochondria where oxygen is a substrate and required for metabolic pathways and carbon dioxide is metabolic waste?

takes place in the mitochondria where oxygen is a substrate and required for metabolic pathways and carbon dioxide is metabolic waste

Describe the cellular respiration phase.

small, aquatic organisms

What type of organisms exhibit gas exchange by diffusion where dissolved oxygen from surrounding water diffuses into cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out of cells and no specialized respiratory structures are needed?

dissolved oxygen from surrounding water diffuses into cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out of cells and no specialized respiratory structures are needed

Describe the type of gas exchange by diffusion that occurs in small aquatic organisms.

oxygen from surrounding water diffuses into cells and carbon dioxide diffuses out

Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide gas exchange occurs in diffusion (or small aquatic organisms?

Sponges, hydras, and flatworms

Small aquatic organisms exhibit gas exchange through diffusion, what are some examples of these animals?

They don't have them because these organisms don't have complex gas exchange, rather oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuses into and out of the body

Why don't sponges, hydras, and flatworms have specialized respiratory structures that aide them in breathing?

Requires specialized respiratory structures to deliver oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide

Describe gas exchange that occurs in more complex organisms such as insects, fish, birds, and mammals.

actively moves air or water over respiratory surface

What is ventilation?

Ventilation

What action is described as actively moving air or water over respiratory surface?

protect their respiratory surfaces from drying

Unlike aquatic animals, terrestrial animals have adaptations that aide them in breathing. Describe this type of adaptation.

Body surface, tracheal tubes, gills and lungs

What are the four different types of respiratory surfaces?

Exchange gases across moist body surface

How do some invertebrates (most annelids) and some vertebrates (many amphibians) exchange gases throughout their body.

Insects and some other arthropods

What type of organisms have open circulatory system?

air enters network of tracheal tubes through spiracles along body surface that extend to all body regions and gases are exchanged in fluid filled tracheoles

Because insects and some arthropods have open circulatory system describe how they exchange gases.

Gills

Aquatic animals do not have lungs, instead they have what structure that aides in gas exchange?

Chordates

What type of animal generally have their gills covered?

thin projections of body surface that are usually found internally, outer surface exposed to water, and inner surface are near the blood vessels, are ciliated and/or folded, or covered by external plate

Describe the gills of aquatic animals.

Operculum

What is the external plate of aquatic animals used to cover their gills known as?

external plate of aquatic animals used to cover their gills

What is an operculum

Operculum protects gills and aids in ventilation, and countercurrent exchange system maximizes diffusion of oxygen into blood and carbon dioxide out of blood

Describe the process of gas exchange in bony fishes

Terrestrial Vertebrates

What type of animals have lungs and some means of ventilating them?

some means of ventilating them

Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs and ____________.

Amphibians and reptiles

What type of animals have lungs with some ridges or folds that increase surface area?

some ridges or folds that increase surface area

Amphibians and reptiles have lungs with __________.

lungs have extensions (air sacs) that draw air into system with two cycles of inhalation and exhalation

Describe in general terms how birds exchange gas with the environment?

Crosscurrent arrangement that increases the amount of oxygen entering the blood

What does gas exchanged through the walls of the parabronchi allow birds to do?

First inhalation. As the bird inhales, fresh air flows into the posterior air sacs partially into the lungs.

What is this process known as and describe it?

As the bird inhales, fresh air flows into the posterior air sacs partially into the lungs

Describe the process of first inhalation in birds.

First inhalation

What process occurs where the bird inhales, fresh air flows into the posterior air sacs partially into the lungs?

Enters through the trachea

Prior to entering the lungs and air sacs how does air get into the bird's system?

Posterior air sacs

The blue air sacs located posterior to the lungs are known as what?

First exhalation. As the birds exhales air from the posterior air sacs is forced into the lungs.

What is this process known as and describe it?

First exhalation

What process occurs when the birds exhales air from the posterior air sacs is forced into the lungs?

the birds exhales air from the posterior air sacs is forced into the lungs

Describe the process of first exhalation.

Second inhalation. Air from the first breath moves into the anterior air sacs and partly into the lungs. Air from the second inhalation flows into the posterior air sacs.

What is this process known as and describe it?

Second inhalation

What process occurs in birds when air from the first breath moves into the anterior air sacs and partly into the lungs. Air from the second inhalation flows into the posterior air sacs?

Air from the first breath moves into the anterior air sacs and partly into the lungs. Air from the second inhalation flows into the posterior air sacs.

Describe the process of second inhalation in birds.

Anterior air sacs, and posterior air sacs

What are the structures colored blue known as, what are the pink known as?

Second exhalation. Most of the air from the first inhalation leaves the body, and air from the second inhalation flows into the lungs.

What is this process known as and describe it.

Most of the air from the first inhalation leaves the body, and air from the second inhalation flows into the lungs.

In birds what happens during the second exhalation?

Second exhalation

What process in bird respiration has most of the air from the first inhalation leaves the body, and air from the second inhalation flows into the lungs?

Small, multicellular animals exchange gases through their body surface.

Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange.

Through the body surface

How do organisms such as roundworms exchange gas with the environment?

Insects and some other arthropods exchange gases through a system of tracheal tubes or tracheae

Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange.

Most aquatic animals exchange gases through gills that are thin structures that extend from the body, and can be either internal or external

Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange?

Lungs are adaptation for terrestrial gas exchange

Describe how this organism has adapted itself for gas exchange.

Respiration

What is known as the gas exchange between the blood and the external environment?

gas exchange between the blood and the external environment

What is respiration.

respiratory and cardiovascular system

Respiration is a shared responsibility of which two body system?

Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs

What is the function of the respiratory system?

Respiratory system

What body system keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide; the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs?

through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs

Where does gas exchange occur in the respiratory system?

Cardiovascular system

What body system has blood vessels that transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc; and is the area where heart pumps blood?

Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc, and where the heart pumps blood

What is the function of the cardiovascular system?

Purify, warm, and moisten incoming air

What is the general function of the conducting passageways that allow air to enter the body?

Nostrils

What is the passageways through which air enters the nose?

Passageways through which air enters the nose

What is the function of the nostrils?

Nasal septum and conchae

What are the two types of nasal cavities?

Divides the nasal cavities in two parts

What is the nasal septum?

Nasal septum

What divides the nasal cavity into two different parts?

Conchae

What is composed of 3 different mucosa that are covered projections which increases the surface area exposed to the air and are used to regulate temperature, cleaning of the air?

composed 3 different mucosa that are covered projections which increases the surface area exposed to the air and are used to regulate temperature, cleaning of the air

What is the conchae?

Paranasal sinuses

What is composed of four cavities connected to the nasal cavities; produces mucus, lighten the skull, and gives resonance to speech?

composed of four cavities connected to the nasal cavities; produces mucus, lighten the skull, and gives resonance to speech

Describe the paranasal sinuses?

Paranasal sinuses

Which part of the nose gives resonance to speech?

Nostrils, Nasal cavities, and Paranasal sinuses

What are the three parts of the nose?

Pharynx

What is the throat known as?

Throat

What is the common name of the Pharynx?

Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx

What are the three parts that make up the Pharynx (throat) called?

Nasopharynx

What part of the pharynx stretch from the internal nares to the soft palate?

stretch from the internal nares to the soft palate

Describe where the nasopharynx is located?

Stretches from the soft palate to the epiglottis

Describe where the oropharynx is located?

Oropharynx

What part of the pharynx stretches from soft palate to the epiglottis?

Laryngopharynx

What part of the pharynx stretches from the epiglottis to the opening of the larynx?

stretches from the epiglottis to the opening of the larynx

Describe where the laryngopharynx is located.

clusters of lymphatic tissues

Describe the general function of the the three sets of tonsils.

Pharyngeal, palatine, and lingual

What are the three sets of tonsils called?

Pharyngeal

What set of tonsil is also known as the adenoid and closes off the nose when it is infected

set of tonsil is also known as the adenoid and closes off the nose when it is infected

What is the pharyngeal?

The tonsils

What is the palatine?

adenoid

What is another name for the pharyngeal?

Palatine

What is the tonsils known as?

at the base of the tongue

Where is the lingual located?

Lingual

What part of the tonsils is located at the base of the tongue?

Larynx

What is formal name of the voice box?

Voice box

What is the general name for the larynx?

routes food and air into proper channels, and produces speech

What is the function of the larynx?

Larynx (voice box)

What routes food and air into proper channels, and produces speech?

Cartilages, vocal cords, and glottis

What are the three components that make up the larynx?

Thyroid cartilage and epiglottis

The cartilage is composed of two parts, what are they?

largest cartilage of the larynx known as the adam's apple

What is the thyroid cartilage?

Thyroid cartilage

What is the largest cartilage of the larynx known as the adam's apple?

Protects the superior opening of the larynx

What is the epiglottis?

Epiglottis

What protects the superior opening of the larynx?

Cartilage

What main part of the larynx is composed of the thyroid cartilage and epiglottis?

vocal cords

What are the folds of mucus membrane in the larynx which can vibrate with expelled air?

folds of mucus membrane in the larynx which can vibrate with expelled air

What is the definition of the vocal cords?

opening between the vocal cords

What is the glottis?

Glottis

What is the opening between the vocal cords?

It is surrounded by c-shaped cartilage rings

Describe the trachea.

Right and left formed by division of the trachea

Describe the primary bronchi.

two

The human body has how many lungs?

Right

Which lung is divided into three different lobes?

Left

Which lung is divided into two different lobes?

Hilus

What is the medial depression on each lung where the primary bronchus enters the lung?

medial depression on each lung where the primary bronchus enters the lung

What is the hilus?

Visceral Pleura, and Parietal Pleura

The lungs is composed of a double layered serous membrane, what are the names of these two membranes?

a double-layered serous membrane that covers the lungs

What is the visceral and parietal pleura?

Visceral pleura

What pleura layer is found on the surface of each lung?

pleura layer that is found on the surface of each lung

What is the visceral pleura?

Parietal pleura

What pleura layer is found on the surface of the thoracic wall?

pleura layer that is found on the surface of the thoracic wall

What is the parietal pleura?

pleural fluid

What type of fluid is secreted by the pleura within the pleural cavity?

fluid that is secreted by the pleura within the pleural cavity

What is the pleural fluid?

elastic tissue, blood vessels, bronchi and branches, and alveoli

What are the structures within the lungs called?

allows for expansion when gas enters, then returns to it's original shape afterwards

What is the function of the elastic tissues found in the lungs?

Elastic tissues

What part of the lungs allows for expansion when gas enters, then returns to it's original shape afterwards?

for gas exchange with the air

What is the function of blood vessels found in the lungs?

blood vessels

What part of the lungs allow for gas exchange with the air?

bronchi and branches

What part of the lungs branch and rebranch to form bronchioles?

branch and rebranch to form bronchioles

What is the function of the bronchi and branches found in the lungs?

alveoli

What part of the lungs is also known as the air sacs and respiratory zone and is the location for most gas exchange?

part of the lungs is also known as the air sacs and respiratory zone and is the location for most gas exchange

What is the alveoli?

alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes. Air flows on one side and blood flows on the other side

What is the respiratory membrane composed of?

diffusion acts to cause gas exchange across this membrane and always requires a concentration gradient

Describe how diffusion occurs in the respiratory membrane?

must be thin and moist with large surface area

Describe how the respiratory membrane should be composed for efficient gas exchange?

average of 50-70 sq meters of gas exchange surface in healthy males and is 40x greater than the surface of the skin

Describe the respiratory membrane of a healthy male?

macrophages and surfactant

What do the alveoli contain?

Macrophages

What are phagocytic cells that pick up foreign organisms and debris?

phagocytic cells that pick up foreign organisms and debris

What are macrophages?

surfactant

What are chemicals that decreases the surface tension of alveolar fluid: lipid?

chemicals that decreases the surface tension of alveolar fluid: lipid

What is the surfactant?

pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, respiratory gas transport, and internal respiration

What are the four events in respiration?

Pulmonary ventilation

What describe when air moves in and out of the lungs (air in the inside of the body is exchanged with fresh air outside)?

air moves in and out of the lungs (air in the inside of the body is exchanged with fresh air outside)

What is pulmonary ventilation?

inhalation

What is another name for inspiration in pulmonary ventilation?

exhalation

What is another name for expiration in pulmonary ventilation?

inspiration

What is another name for inhalation in pulmonary ventilation?

expiration

What is another name for exhalation in pulmonary ventilation?

External respiration

What describes gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and lungs where oxygen from fresh air in lungs moves into the blood and excess CO2 from the blood moves into the lungs?

gas exchange between the pulmonary blood and lungs where oxygen from fresh air in lungs moves into the blood and excess CO2 from the blood moves into the lungs

What is external respiration?

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