a solid with randomly arranged particles
a solid with its constituent particles in an orderly arrangement
''skeleton'' of a crystal
dot representing each particle on a space lattice
smallest repeating figure in a crystalline solid
cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, rhombohedral, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic
Name the seven crystal systems
F(s)= kx; the farther the separation between particles of a solid, the stronger the force tending to draw them back together again.
an upward cohesive force
the deformative force per unit cross-sectional area
the relative amount of deformation
Amorphous solids do not have much structural organization while crystalline solids do (they have unit cells).
What is the difference between amorphous and crystalline solids?
direct proportional relationship
What is the relationship between stress and strain for all kinds of deformation?
stretching or Young Modulus; Y = f(s)L/a x l-l
What is the proportionality constant for stretching called? To what is it equal?
ultimate tensile strength, breaking point, elastic limit, and proportional limit
Name and define four points on the graph of stress vs. strain.
What kinds of manipulation are related to Young's modulus? To the shear modulus?
wash cloth, asian noodles, twistie ties
Give three examples of torsion.
the maximum amount of relative deformation that may be permanently imposed upon it.
rigidity and resilience
Name two kinds of elasticity.
forging, rolling, drawing, extrusion, and spinning
Define five industrial processes for working metal.
Mohs' hardness number and Brinell's hardness number
What are two hardness scales?
-A material can scratch anything with a lower Mohs' number but nothing with a higher Mohs' number.
What is the rule for predicting which of two materials will scratch the other?
distance between the applied force and the supporting force
Because the outer boundary of each particle in the crystal in fact touches upon the outer boundary of its neighbor
How is the space lattice unrealistic?
Y=F(s)l/A delta L; amount of stretching force required per unit area to produce a doubling in length (most objects will fracture long before they are stretch to that extent).
point after which Hooke's law stops applying
point after which object becomes permanently destroyed
ultimate tensile strength
point at which stress is the highest
point after which the object has reached maximum strain and breaks
distance of separation at which particles neither attract or repel
tends to snap the rod in two
tends to sever the rod
tends to twist the rod apart
the combination of two oppositely directed forces different lines of cation
the ability to recover their original shape after being deformed by an external force
elasticity opposing deformation
elasticity requiring small amount of strain to bring material back to its elastic limit
various processes used to impose desired shapes upon ingots of newly refined metal
a large, solid bar of metal
metal is squeezed or pounded between two dies (two half-molds)
metal is pressed down by a series of paired, heavy rollers into a continuous sheet
property of metal that allows it to be rolled or hammered into a sheet
metal is pulled through a single die into a continuous ribbon with the same cross-sectional shape as the interior surface of the die
property of metal that allows them to be drawn