Theravada (Sri Lanka)
Buddhism (oldest form of Buddhism)
Reclining Buddhas show the parinirvana (death of Buddah and attainment of nirvana)
Built on the island of Java as a "Cosmic Mountain" with a mandala plan. Pilgrims circumambulate numerous times looking at relief carvings w/stories of Buddah's previous incarnations from the Jatakas
King Jayavarman II
(Cambodia) Founded the Angkor Dynasty of the Khmer Empire.
Hinduism and Buddhism merged in this cult of (god-kings)
Built by Jayavarman VII.
Banyan temple at the center with faces
The earliest language identified in South Asia is which of the following?
Which of the following was among the innovative ideas of the Upanishads?
belief in an endless round of rebirths
Where did the Buddha give his First Sermon?
Which of the following rulers marked his reign with the first official sponsorship of Buddhism?
Gandhara, a region largely in Pakistan today and close to the Afghanistan border, was home to the Kushan Dynasty and had a rich hellenized culture. Which of the following would explain that association?
Legacy of Alexander the Great
For more than four centuries successive Khmer kings worked on the grand complex of temples and palaces at this site, and each king built a temple mountain dedicated to his personal god.
Angkor Wat, Cambodia
Dome = "anda" (cosmic egg)
Square platform = "harmika"
Central axis-pillar = yatsi
Umbrella shaped chattras (three jewels of Buddhism)
Stone fence = vedika
Four gateways = toranas
"Anda" Cosmic Egg
Central axis pillar
Umbrella shaped (Three jewels of Buddhism)
The caves of Ajanta are famed for which of the following?
Earliest surviving paintings
The idea that one can escape the sorrow of existence by the elimination of desire was an important teaching of which of the following?
A chaitya hall would most likely be found in which of the following?
A sculptured Buddhist cave temple
The profusion of sexually amorous couples in Indian art indicates which of the following.
Spiritual Favor and Prosperity
Theravada Buddhism continues in which of the following countries?
The Vishnu Temple at Deogarh has guardians and mithuna protecting the doorway. Why is this done?
it is a transition point between the dangerous outside and the sacred interior
The Great Wall of China was constructed as a defense against the nomadic peoples of the north, in particular the ___________.
Buddhism first took root in China during which of the following dynasties?
A catastrophic fire occurred in 1949 and destroyed which of the following?
interior walls of the Golden Hall, Horyuji
The sculptor who created the Shaka triad for the Horyuji Kondo was ____________.
Who was the founder of the "New Rome" of the East?
The dome of the Hagia Sophia is supported by __________.
The medium used for the icon of the Virgin and Child between St. Theodore and St. George is which of the following?
Theodora's presence in the mosaic program of San Vitale indicates her importance and unique position within the court of Justinian. The representation of the Three Magi on the border of her robe also suggests she __________________.
Belongs in elevated company
Justinian's position on the north wall of the apse of San Vitale is somewhat ambiguous. He appears to be slightly behind the bishop, yet the paten he carries overlaps the bishop's arm. This indicates the ___________________.
Balance between church and state
The nave of the Hagia Sophia was exclusively reserved for the clergy. The laity or congregation was confined to the aisles and galleries. Based on this information, what accounts for the symbolical unity of Church and State?
the emperor was the only layperson privileged to enter the sanctuary
The mosaic program found in the apse of San Vitale supports the Byzantine theme of the holy ratification of Church and State. The presence of which figures in the mosaic program supports this theme?
Christ and Justinian
The images and symbols found in the sanctuary from San Vitale express the single theme of _________.
Christ's redemption of humanity
The monastic movement began in __________ in the third century.
Where would a squinch most likely be found?
Supporting a dome
The seventh and eighth centuries were a period of turmoil for Byzantium. This period saw the loss of the Eastern provinces to conquest under the banner of Islam. These events persuaded Emperor Leo III that God was punishing the Empire for its idolatrous worship of icons. Based on this what did Leo III initiate?
He formally prohibited the use of images
The dome on the Katholikon, Hosios Loukas is formed by ____________
The image of Christ as the Pantokrator refers to his role as ___________.
Whose relics were obtained from Egypt for Venice?
The interior mosaic program for St. Mark's has explanatory labels written in both Greek and Latin. What accounts for this?
It refects Venice's position as a link between the east and the west
The emotional impact of Christ's death can be seen in the wall painting of the Lamentation over the Dead Christ found in St. Pantaleimon, Nerezi. Which two figures in the painting support this assertion by their gestures?
Mary and John
With the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks, which state became the self-appointed heir to defend against the infidel?
What accounts for the fragmentary knowledge of Byzantine art prior to the ninth century?
Greek for bearer/mother of God
(lovers of images) restored icons
images of religious figures
What dynasty restored the use of icons to Orthodox Church?
Hosios Loukas in Greece
Monastic Churches: Two churches with domes placed on Greek cross-shaped plans.
Transform square into octagon to create a base for a dome (related to pendentives)