DCUSH Chapter 8-12 Review

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Part of the "democratizing" of politics during the age of Jackson was the elimination of _________________________for voting and holding office

Property qualification

During John Quincy Adams' presidency, the politician who prepared for the next election by relying on his military reputation and portraying himself as losing the presidency in 1824 due to the "corrupt bargain" was ________________

Andrew Jackson

The basic concept underlying the "spoils system" was that party workers must be rewarded with ___________________ after a successful campaign.

political office

One of the "fundamental tenets of Jacksonian Democracy" was that ___________________

ordinary Americans can do anything

Jackson's advisers who did not hold regular cabinet appointments were called the ___________

kitchen cabinet

Jackson's view of the presidency differed from his predecessor's primarily in his belief that the ________________________________

he was the direct representative of all the people

Other than Jackson's personal popularity, the main campaign issue in the presidential election of 1832 was _____________________________

whether or not we should have the national bank

Jackson defended his veto of the charter of the Second National Bank on the grounds that the bank was ___________________, despite the Supreme Court.

unconstitutionaly

Jackson's attitude toward nullification was to _______________ because of his devotion to the Union.

oppose it

Jackson's policy toward the Native Americans was to________________ to lands west of the Mississippi

Move them

The Native American nation forced to move from Georgia as a result of Jackson's policies were the ___________________

cherokee

Jackson opposed John Marshall's rulings about the Cherokee Nation in Georgia because he believed no _______________________ could be allowed to exist within the United States.

independent nation

South Carolina's challenge to the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 is called the _______________

nullification crisis

The Southern political thinker who justified Southern resistance to the Tariff of 1828 was _____________________

Calhoun

The new political coalition which emerged to challenge Democratic control in the 1830s was called the _____________________

Whigs

The unifying principle of the Whig party was opposition to ______________________

Andrew Jackson

The Whig party's strategy in the election of 1836 was to run several candidates in the hope that the __________________________ would decide the election.

House of Representatives

Martin Van Buren's response to the Panic of 1837 was to follow _______________ to economic troubles.

hands off

In the election of 1840 the Whig's presidential nominee, who was a former military hero whose political opinions were largely unknown, was ___________________

William Henry Harrison

During the election of 1840, the Whigs portrayed Harrison as _________________________

someone from humble beginnings

Immediately after Harrison's inauguration Harrison died, was succeeded by the doctrinaire __________________, and the political climate of the country changed dramatically.

John Tyler

English authors Frances Trollope and Charles Dickens both visited the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century and concluded that Americans were _____________________

crude

The famous book in which Alexis de Tocqueville analyzed American society was __________

democracy in America

For Tocqueville, the most striking condition of American society was its ________________

equality

In the early nineteenth century the American population was ___________ about every 20 years.

doubling

The most significant development in urban population trends from 1820 to 1850 was the emergence of _________________

new towns

A typical theme of the Second Great Awakening was that people could take their ____________ into their own hands.

salvation

Evangelist Charles Grandison Finney's success depended upon _______________ through personal testimony of salvation.

emotional release

The communitarian group whose members were celibate, held their property in common, valued simplicity and industriousness, stressed equality of labor, and practiced a joyful and fervent religion was ________________

shakers

Joseph Smith was founder of the _________________

mormons

The Illinois town founded by Mormon leader Joseph Smith as a semi-independent state within the federal Union was ___________________

Nauvoo

The pioneer in developing methods for educating deaf people who opened a school for deaf students in 1817 was __________________

Gaullaudet

The name most closely associated with the reform of institutions for the insane was ________________

dorthia dix (not sure on spelling)

During the 1820s Americans' per capita consumption of __________________ increased to the highest point ever in American experience.

alcohol

The effectiveness of the temperance movement was greatly enhanced by the correlation between alcoholic consumption and __________________

crime

The organization of reformed drunkards which focused on reclaiming alcoholics from the gutter was the ________________________

washingtonians

Catholic immigrants from Germany and Ireland often objected to demands for _____________ of all alcohol.

prohibition

Although involved in many reforms, William Lloyd Garrison is best known for his activities in the cause of ____________________

abolition

William Lloyd Garrison's views on slavery might best be described as __________________

uncompromising

The most influential black abolitionist was _______________________

Frederick Douglass

In his autobiography and speeches, Frederick Douglass insisted that full social, political, and _________________equality for blacks was required

economic

An important factor in encouraging the growth of the women's rights movement was the female abolitionists' recognition that, like the slaves, they were born into the ________________, which destined them for menial roles in society.

caste system

One of the few advocates of women's rights who did not begin her career in the abolitionist movement and who made a frontal assault on all forms of sexual discrimination in Women in the Nineteenth Century was ___________________

Margaret Fuller

The co-organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention and author of its Declaration of Sentiments was _______________________

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Susan B. Anthony played a prominent role in the ______________________ because she was the first to see the need for thorough organization

woman rights movement

The ____________ was an early nineteenth century development that constituted the combined solution to the problems of locating sufficient capital, transporting raw materials to factories and products to consumers, and supervising large numbers of workers.

Market Revolution

The first American factory was developed by ____________________

Samuel Slatar

The merchant who headed the Boston Associates, owners of the innovative Waltham mills, was _________________

Francis Lowell

Most workers in the earliest textile factories were women and _________________

children

Under the "Waltham System," young farm women worked and lived under ______________

very harsh conditions

The American population more than doubled between 1790 and 1820 primarily because of the ____________________

high birth rate

In the 1830s and 1840s thousands of poor and wretched immigrants flooded into America from Ireland and _______________

Germany

According to your text, by far the most important indirect effect of industrialization occurred when the South began to produce cotton to supply the new textile mills of _____________________

New England and Britain

The inventor of a cotton gin, which removed seeds from upland cotton, was ________________

Eli Whitney

For a generation after 1815, the most expansive force in the American economy was ____________________

Cotton

A successful and bloody slave revolt led to the creation in 1804 of the black republic of _________________________

Haiti

The Republic of Liberia in western Africa was founded by _______________________

American Colonization society

The shift to cotton production caused a demand for more labor which was met by a renewed growth of __________________

slavery

By 1820, interstate slave trade in the South was _______________________

an organized business

The natural highway for western commerce and communication in the early 19th century was the __________ River.

Mississippi

In the 1790s and early 1800s private companies built roads called _________________

turnpikes

American inventor Robert Fulton perfected the first commercially successful ________________

steamboat

A major improvement in the transportation network in the 1820s and 1830s was the construction of ______________________

canals

The greatest advantage which early canals offered was _______________________

a link between the midwest and the atlantic

The mayor of New York City who organized information and political influence to convince the state legislature to construct the Erie Canal was ______________________

governor Clinton

Immediately after the Erie Canal was completed, it was a ____________________

success

The Erie Canal solidly established ____________________ importance in commerce

New York City

The Supreme Court's decision in Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) upheld the principle of the sanctity of _____________________

contrast

Between _________ and _________, American culture evolved into a distinctive and American culture.

1830, 1850

The only American novelist before 1830 to use the national heritage effectively was ________________

James Fenmore Cooper

The leading light of New York literature and author of such humorous tales as "Rip Van Winkle" was _______________

Washington Irving

Both Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau objected to many of society's restrictions on the ______________.

individual

In Walden _________________ both described his experiment of living without the products of civilization and attacked the unthinking conformity of the average American.

Henry David Thoreau

The American transcendentalist who defended his refusal to pay taxes to support the Mexican War in his essay "Civil Disobedience" was _____________

Henry David Thoreau

The American writer whose works are filled with examples of wild imagination and fascination with mystery, fright, and the occult was ____________

Edgar Allen Poe

Probably the best writer whose subject was puritan New England was ____________

Nathaniel Hawthorne

One of Hawthorne's greatest works was his grim, but sympathetic analysis of the consequences of adultery, ___________________

The Scarlet Letter

___________________ shared Nathaniel Hawthorne's dark view of human nature.

Herman Melville

Herman Melville's book which your text calls "one of the finest novels written by an American" is ________________

Moby Dick

Walt Whitman's book of poems in rambling free verse on commonplace topics in coarse language was __________________

leaves of grass

Currier and Ives achieved tremendous success in the production and sale of charming __________________

lithographs

One of the most effective leaders of the common school movement was ________________

Horace Mann

By the 1850s the common school movement had succeeded in establishing free elementary schools and public institutions for ____________________ in every state outside the South.

training teachers

The cultural center for American art and music in the Jacksonian America was __________________

Philadelphia

One example of why _________________ became the center of trans-Allegheny culture was that it was in Cincinnati that the first Beethoven symphony was performed in America.

Cincinatti

The most basic goal of the __________________ movement was education for democracy.

common school

The typically romantic architecture which valued irregularity of style and is represented by the Smithsonian Institution is called ___________________

American Gothic

The greatest expression of Romanticism in the United States was through __________________

transcendentalism

"The American Scholar" was a plea for Americans to be American by ____________________

Emerson

Most American novelists of the early national period slavishly imitated _____________ writers.

British

The staunch states' rights advocate who became president when William Henry Harrison died was _____________________

John Tyler

Before Texas gained its independence in 1836, a major conflict between American settlers in Texas and the Mexican government was Mexico's abolition of _________________.

slavery

According to your text, in the battle over the independence of Texas, the slaughters at Goliad and at ________, a former mission, made peaceful settlement of the dispute with Mexico almost impossible.

Alamo

The leader of the Texas independence movement and first president of the Republic of Texas was ______________________

Sam Houston

Manifest Destiny might best be described as the belief that _______________ were God's chosen people.

Americans

One significant aspect of life on the westward trail in the 1840s was that it was especially taxing for __________________.

women

Mexico's main grievance against the United States was based upon the annexation of ____________________.

Texas

In the _______________________ the president led the nation into war without a formal declaration of war from Congress.

Mexican-American War

The campaign against Mexico City was commanded by General ______________________

Winfield Scott

The Mexican War was ended by the Treaty of _________________________

Guadalupe Hidalgo

Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States gained _______________ and Upper California.

New Mexico

Slavery erupted as a divisive issue after the ____________________ over the question of slavery in the territory conquered from Mexico.

Mexican War

The original advocate of organizing new territories on the basis of "popular sovereignty" was _________________________

Lewis Cass

Zachary Taylor was chosen to run for president by the ________________ in 1848 because of his military career.

whigs

In 1849 approximately 80,000 Americans migrated to __________________ because of the start of the gold rush.

California

California's possible admission as a free state caused such a furor because it broke the ______________________ in the Senate between slave and free states.

Balance of Power

The senator who initially organized the legislative program which became the Compromise of 1850 was _________________________

Henry Clay

When Zachary Taylor died, the politician who became president and was instrumental in achieving the Compromise of 1850 was _______________________

Millard Filmore

The Compromise of 1850 included admitting __________ as a free state.

California

What was the public reaction to the Compromise of 1850? Mass meetings throughout the country were held to ______________________ it.

support

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