APUSH Ch.14 Vocab

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American Pageant Tag: slender

"Cash-Crop Agriculture"

Americans moved from subsistance farming to this. Growing crops for market rather than personal use.

"Clipper" ships

A innovative type of ship that sacrificed cargo space for speed. Had a brief period of glory, then overshadowed by steam ships.

"Cult of Domesticity"

Widespread creed of the proper woman. Piety, purity, modesty, submissiveness, etc.

"Factory Girls"

These were a new addition to the work force, hard-working, severely restricted industrial workers; paid less than the opposite sex, and often very young.

"Limited Liability" Corporations

Groups of investors pooled their capitals; they only risked the amount they put in, thus making corporations more appealing.

"Molly Maguires"

Secret society of Irish-American coal miners, in Pennsylvania 1860's and 70's

"Rugged individualism"

The ideal of the day. Every man was equally capable of succeeding, which he should do on his own.

"Social Mobility"

The principle of being able to change your social status, or move up the economic ladder.

American or "Know-Nothing" Party (1849)

"Nativist" Party; suspicious of the immigrants, hoping to get them out of America to "Take back our jobs"

Cotton Gin

Revolutionary device created by Eli Whitney that exponentially increased efficiency of cotton harvesting.

Cyrus McCormick (1830's)

Created the mechanical mower-reaper, exponentially increased harvesting efficiency in the West.

DeWitt Clinton

Governor of New York during construction of the Erie Canal, which was called "Clinton's Big Ditch"

Eli Whitney

Inventor, created the cotton gin and the concept of interchangeable parts.

Elias Howe (1846)

Invented the Sewing Machine

Erie Canal (1817-1825)

Canal connecting the Hudson River to Lake Erie in New York.

European Democratic revolutions (1848)

Failed revolutions that pushed Europeans to America

Factory System

Mass production of products in factories.

Immigration (first wave)

The coming of individuals from other nations to America, principally from Ireland and Germany.

Industrial Revolution

Period between 1750 and 1850 when changes/innovations in agriculture and manufacturing radically changed society.

Interchangeable parts

The principle of having machine made parts that are all the same, devised by Eli Whitney.

Irish Potato Famine (1840s)

Potato blight swept through Ireland; the potato had become Ireland's main source of food.

Isaac Singer

Perfected the Sewing Machine crated by Elias Howe

John Deere (1837)

Produced a steel plow. Now makes tractors.

John Jacob Astor

Fur-trader and real estate speculator, had $30 million by his death.

Kindergartens

Education brought by Germans, translates to Children's Gardens. The Germans were big on promoting education.

Lancaster "turnpike" (1790s)

Privately made road, charged a toll. Consisted of sharp pikes that would turn away once you payed.

Lowell Mills

Textile mills, named after the city in Massachusetts.

National/Cumberland Road (1811-1852)

Nationally funded road project extending 591 miles from Cumberland in Maryland to Vandalia in Illinois.

Patents

Legal documents that gave inventors exclusive rights to their inventions for a limited time.

Pony Express (1860)

Created in 1860 to speedily carry mail. They used a network of fresh horses to deliver in record times.

Railroad (1828)

First one of these was established in 1828, changed the way things moved across land.

Robert Fulton (1807)

Started the Steamboat Craze, put a steam engine on his ship known as the Clermont, or "Fulton's Folly"

Samuel F.B. Morse (1844)

Invented the telegraph. Had his own "code."

Samuel Slater (1791)

British mechanic that brought the industrial revolution to America.

Tammany Hall

"Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City and New York State politics and helping immigrants, most notably the Irish, rise up in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s." -Wikipedia

Trade Unions

Initially outlawed and seen as conspiracies, workers collectively fought for workers rights.

Urbanization

People were moving to the cites to work in factories.

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