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Which of the following have humans only accomplished by modern biotechnology?

create new alleles

What is the term for manipulating the molecular basis of inheritance via recombinant DNA technology?

biotechnology

Modern forensic biotechnology labs use sophisticated machines to analyze ________, such as D16, and to determine the number of specific genetic repeats in the samples.

STR's

What do differences in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) banding patterns between samples indicate?

The two different DNA molecules being tested have different base pair sequences

Small, accessory chromosomes found in bacteria that are useful in recombinant DNA procedures are called:

plasmids

On the whole, how has biotechnology been used most successfully by humans?

It has been most successful at creating transgenic organisms to manufacture products for us.

About 90% of the human genome contains the genes. True or False?

false

If the DNA fingerprint of a suspect does not match a blood sample from a crime scene, what can you conclude?

The blood sample had to come from another person, but the suspect may still have been there.

The substances used to cut genes in recombinant DNA research are called:

restriction enzymes

Which of the following is NOT a natural means of DNA recombination?

polymerase chain reaction

Which of the following would be the first step in creating a transgenic cure for cystic fibrosis?

cloning the healthy CFTR allele

How do scientists generate large amounts of a particular piece of DNA they wish to work with?

They insert the DNA into a bacterial plasmid. This allows them to grow large populations of bacteria with the plasmid so they can isolate as much DNA as they need.

At least 80% of the ________ grown in the United States is transgenic.

corn cotton and soybeans

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is essential for:

making many copies of a small amount of DNA.

DNA is negatively charged because of its:

phosphate groups

Prenatal diagnosis is available for all of the following disorders EXCEPT:

aids

An organism that contains foreign DNA, which was inserted into its own genetic material, is called:

transgenic

If you cut out a gene using EcoRI and BamHI, what enzyme(s) will you need to insert the gene into another chromosome?

both EcoRI and BamHI

Which of the following is NOT a valid difference between traditional and modern forms of biotechnology?

Modern forms of biotechnology are slower than traditional forms of biotechnology.

Which of the following involves the use of human genes?

insulin production by bacteria

The sequence of nitrogen-containing bases on one strand of DNA most directly determines the sequence of:

amino acids in a protein molecule

Which of the following is found in RNA but NOT in DNA?

uracil

The process of copying genetic information from DNA to RNA is called:

transcription

Which of the following contains deoxyribose?

DNA

A transcription start signal is called a(n):

promoter

What does mRNA carry away from the nucleus?

information

The process of converting the "message" of mRNA into a sequence of amino acids is called:

translation

What is the site of protein synthesis?

ribosome

The manufacture of proteins from RNA and amino acids is referred to as:

translation

A tRNA molecule brings ________ to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

an amino acid

Which of the following contains codons?

messenger rna

Which anticodon would match the codon AAG?

UUC

A random change in a DNA nucleotide base sequence:

constitutes a mutation

For a mutation to affect the evolution of an animal species, it must occur within:

gametes

In females, an entire X chromosome is inactivated in each cell. The inactivated X chromosome is called the ________.

Barr Body

What is the reason calico cats are almost always female?

inactivation of the x chromosome

What would you expect to see inside the cells of a woman with Turner's syndrome (XO)?

no Barr Bodies

Which of the following statements about ribosomes is correct?

Ribosomes are made from RNA and protein. They are used to synthesize protein.

What is another name for RNA synthesis?

Transcription

A gene is moved from chromosome 12 to chromosome 15. What has happened to this gene?

The gene is in a new locus.

What is the definition of cross-fertilization?

Cross-fertilization just means that offspring are the result of two parents. Self-fertilization is the opposite.

Gregor Mendel concluded that each pea has two units for each trait, and each gamete contains one unit. Mendel's "units" are now called:

genes

If, in a heterozygous individual, only one allele is expressed in the phenotype, that allele is:

dominant

Round pea shape is dominant over wrinkled pea shape. If a round pea has a wrinkled parent, the round pea is:

Rr

In a test cross, what percentage of the offspring will have the same phenotype as the tested parent if the parent to be tested is homozygous?

100%

If two parents are carriers of albinism (an autosomal recessive trait), what is the chance that their fourth child will have a homozygous genotype?

50%

A purple-flowered pea plant self-fertilizes and produces both purple and white offspring. What is its genotype?

Pp

All of the following combinations are possible in the gametes of an organism that is AaBb EXCEPT:

aa

Suppose you cross a pea plant with yellow, smooth seeds with one that has wrinkled, green seeds. You examine the seeds of 967 offspring and find that some have yellow, smooth seeds and some have yellow, wrinkled seeds, but no green seeds of either type show up. What is the genotype of the yellow-seeded parent? (Y = yellow, y = green; S = smooth, s = wrinkled)

YYSs

Image that you self-pollinate heterozygous purple-flowered, long-pollened pea plants and get mostly purple-flowered, short-pollened plants and white-flowered, long-pollened plants, with a very few purple-flowered, long-pollened or white-flowered, short-pollened plants. What is the most likely explanation?

the genes are linked

What feature controls the tightness of the linkage of two genes?

the distance between the two genes

In humans, the sex of the offspring is determined by the:

sex chromosome carried by the sperm cell

Traits controlled by sex-linked recessive genes are expressed more often in males because:

the male has only one gene for the trait

Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive gene that causes a blood disorder. What are the chances that the daughter of a normal man and a heterozygous woman will have hemophilia?

0% 50% if a boy

Color blindness is more common in men than in women because:

men have only one X chromosome

Co-dominance occurs when

both of the alleles in a heterozygote are expressed phenotypically in an individual.

If an individual who is homozygous for type B blood marries a heterozygous type A individual, what is the chance that their first child will have type AB blood?

50%

All of the following are true regarding pedigree analysis EXCEPT that it:

is exclusively used to study the patterns of inheritance in dogs.

Sickle-cell anemia is caused by a:

recessive autosomal in all cells

Which disorder is characterized by an abnormal number of autosomes?

down syndrome

A disorder caused by nondisjunction of chromosome 21, resulting in a trisomy 21 child, is:

down syndrome

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