Part 1 chapter 19-20 test

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Mr. Smith test

The Industrial Revolution had its beginnings in

Great Britain

Britain's emergence as the first industrial power was aided by all of the following except

Parliaments heavy involvement in private enterprise.

The Industrial Revolution in Britain was largely inspired by

entrepreneurs who sought and accepted the new profitable manufacturing methods.

The infrastructure advantages in Britain promoting rapid industrialization included all of the following except

internal customs posts.

The British industrial entrepreneur James Hargreaves

created the spinning jenny

The first step toward the Industrial Revolution in Britain occurred within its

cotton textile industry

Britain's cotton industry in the late eighteenth century

was responsible for the creation of the first modern factories.

The invention of the steam engine in Britain was initially triggered by

problems in the mining industry.

What inventions proved vital to the industrialization of British cotton manufacturing?

Arkwright's spinning frame.
Hargreaves' spinning jenny.
Cartwright's power loom.

James Watt was vital to the Industrial Revolution for his invention of

a rotary engine that could spin and weave cotton.

The development of the steam engine during the Industrial Revolution

made Britain's cotton goods the cheapest and most popular in the world.

The success of the steam engine in the Industrial Revolution made Britain dependent upon

coal.

The Englishman Henry Cort was responsible for the process in iron smelting known as

puddling.

The development of such superior locomotives as the Rocket, used on the first public railway lines, is attributed to

George Stephenson.

The development of the railroads in the Industrial Revolution was important in

increasing British supremacy in civil and mechanical engineering

The new set of values established by factory owners during the Industrial Revolution

relegated the worker to a life of harsh discipline and the rigors of competitive wage labor.

A frequent method employed to make the many very young boys and girls working in new British industries

repeated beatings.

The rise of the industrial factory system deeply affected the lives and status of workers who now

no longer owned the means of economic production and could only sell their labor for a
wage.

The Great Exhibition of 1851

displayed Great Britain's industrial wealth to the world.

One of the chief reasons why Europe initially lagged behind England in industrialization was a lack of

roads and means of transportation.

To keep their industrial monopoly, Britain attempted to

prohibit industrial artisans from going abroad.

Industrialization began on the continent first in

Belgium, France and Germany.

One of the differences between British and Continental industrialization was that

government played a larger role in Continental industrialization.

Before _(year)_, the industrialism that had developed in western and central Europe and the United States did not extend in any significant way to the rest of the world.

1870

The initial application of machinery to production in the United States was

by borrowing from Great Britain.

By 1850, what countries were close to Britain in industrial output?

Germany.
Belgium.
the United States.
France.

The Industrial Revolution on the continent was led by

the coal and iron of heavy industry.

The first Continental nations to complete establish a comprehensive railroad system were

Belgium and Germany.

The Industrial Revolution in the United States

required the construction of thousands of miles of roads and canals.

By 1860, there were about ____ steamboats on the Mississippi.

500

By 1860 what percent of the population in cities held 70 to 80 percent of the wealth in America?

10 percent

Compared to Britain, American industrialization was a capital-intensive endeavor because

there was a larger pool of unskilled laborers in the U.S.

The so-called American System was

the use of interchangeable parts in manufacturing.

By 1850, the European population

over 265 million.

The European population explosion of the nineteenth century

was largely attributable to the disappearance of famine from western Europe.

The only European country with a declining population in the nineteenth century was

Ireland.

Urbanization in the first half of the nineteenth century

accounted for widespread poverty in rural areas of Europe.

Which of the following statements best applies to urban life in the early nineteenth century?

Filthy sanitary conditions were exacerbated by the city authorities' slow response to take
responsibility for public health.

Demographic changes that resulted from industrialization saw

the new middle class move to the suburbs of cities to escape the urban poor.

Edwin Chadwick

advocated modern sanitary reforms that resulted in Britain's first Public Health Act.

Which nineteenth century novelist described the coal towns as a place "where the struggling vegetation sickened and sank under the hot breath of kiln and furnace"?

Charles Dickens

Members of the new industrial entrepreneurial class in the early nineteenth century

were usually resourceful individuals with diverse social backgrounds.

The new social class of industrial workers in the early Industrial Revolution

worked under dangerous conditions for long hours.

A primary reasons for the use of children as a source of labor in the Industrial Revolution was

low-paid children could more easily move around large industrial equipment.

Women who worked in the early factories of the Industrial Revolution

did not result in a significant transformation in female working patterns.

The English Poor Law Act of 1834 included all of the following except

a. a place of refuge for poor people.
c. established workhouses.
d. were places where families were separated. e. provided awful food for the poor.

The Industrial Revolution's effect on the standard of living

especially benefited the middle classes.

Led to much increased disparity between the richest and poorest classes in society.

Eventually led to an overall increase in purchasing power for the working classes.

The People's Charter demanded all of the following except

a. universal male suffrage.
b. the elimination of property qualifications for members of Parliament. c. payment for members of Parliament.
d. the establishment of a republic and the abolition of the monarchy.
e. annual sessions of parliament.

D

The Luddites

destroyed industrial machines that destroyed their livelihood.

Efforts at industrial reform in the 1830's and 1840's in Great Britain achieved all of the following except the

a. establishment of a national system of trade unions by 1847.
b. reduction of working hours for children to no more than 12 hours a day.
c. outlawing of women and children in coal mines.
d. requirement of daily education for working children.
e. appointment of government factory inspectors.

A

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