Personality is defined as an individual's characteristic pattern of ____, ____, and ____.
The psychoanalytic perspective on personality was proposed by ____. A second, historically significant perspective was the ____ approach, which focused on people's capacities for ____ and ____.
Today's theories are more ____ and down-to-earth than these classic theories.
Sigmund Freud was a medical doctor who specialized in ____ disorders.
Freud developed his theory in response to his observation that many patients had disorders that did not make ___ sense.
At first, Freud thought ____ would unlock the door to the unconscious.
The technique later used by Freud, in which the patient relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, is called _____.
Freud called his theory and associated techniques, whereby painful unconscious memories are exposed, ____.
According to this theory, many of a person's thoughts, wishes, and feelings are hidden in a large____ region. Some of the thoughts in this region can be retrieved at will into consciousness; these thoughts are said to be ____. Many of the memories of this region, however, are blocked, or ____ from consciousness.
Freud believed that a person's ____ wishes are often reflected in his or her beliefs, habits, symptoms, and ____ of the tongue or pen. Freud called the remembered content of dreams the _________, which he believed to be a censored version of the dream's true ____.
Freud believed that all facets of personality arise from conflict between our ____ impulses and the ____ restraints against them.
According to Freud, personality consists of three interacting structures: the ____, the ____, and the ____.
The id is a reservoir of psychic energy that is primarily ____ and operates according to the ____ principle.
The ego develops ____ the id and consists of perceptions, thoughts, and memories that are mostly ____. The ego operates according to the ____ principle.
The personality structure that reflects moral values is the ____, which Freud believed began emerging at about age ____.
4 or 5
A person with a ____ superego may be self-indulgent; one with an unusually ____ superego may be virtuous but guilt ridden.
According to Freud, personality is formed as the child passes through a series of ____ stages, each of which is focused on a distinct body area called an _____.
The first stage is the ____ stage, which takes place during the first 18 months of life. During this stage, the id's energies are focused on behaviors such as ____.
sucking (also biting, chewing)
The second stage is the ____ stage, which last from about age ____ months to _____ months.
The third stage is the ____ stage, which lasts roughly from ages ____ to ____ years. During this stage, the id's energies are focused on the ____. Freud also believed that during this stage children develop sexual desires for the ____ sex parent. Freud referred to these feelings as the ____ in boys. Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experience a parallel _____.
Freud believed that ____ with the same-sex parent is the basis for what psychologists now call _____.
During the next stage, sexual feelings are repressed: this phase is called the ____ stage and lasts until puberty.
The final stage of development is called the ____ stage.
According to Freud, it is possible for a person's development to become blocked in any of the stages; in such an instance, the person is said to be ____.
The ego attempts to protect itself against anxiety through the use of ____. The process underlying each of these mechanisms is ____.
Dealing with anxiety by returning to an earlier stage of development is called ____.
When a person reacts in a manner opposite that of his or her true feelings, ____ is said to have occurred.
When a person attributes his or her own feelings to another person, ____ has occured.
When a person offers a false, self-justifying explanation for his or her actions, ____ has occurred.
When impulses are directed toward an object other than the one that caused arousal, ____ has occurred.
When a person refuses to believe or even perceive a painful reality, he or she is experiencing ____.
Defense mechanisms are ____ processes.
The theorists who established their own, modified versions of psychoanalytic theory are called ____. These theorists typically place ____ emphasis on the conscious mind than Freud did and ____ emphasis on sex and aggression.
emphasized the social, rather than the sexual, tensions of childhood and said that much of behavior is driven by the need to overcome feelings of inferiority
questioned the male bias in Freud's theory, such as the assumptions that women have weak egos and suffer "penis envy" Like Adler she emphasized social tensions
emphasized an inherited collective unconscious
Today's psychologists ____ the idea of inherited experiences, which ____ called a ____.
More recently, some of Freud's ideas have been incorporated into ____ theory. Unlike Freud, the theorists advocating this perspective do not believe that ____ is the basis of personality. They do agree, however, that much of mental life is ____, that ____ shapes personality, and that we often struggle with _____.
Tests that provide subjects with ambiguous stimuli for interpretation are called ____ tests. Henry Murray introduced the personality assessment technique called the ____ Test.
The most widely used projective test is the ____, in which people are shown a series of ____. Critics contend that these tests have ____ validity and reliability.
Contrary to Frued's theory, research indicates that human development is ____ chidlren gain their gender identity at a(n) _____ age, and the presence of a same sex parent ___ necessary for the child to become strongly masculine or feminine.
Research also disputes Freud's belief that dreams disguise ____ and that defense mechanisms disguise ____ and ___ impulses. Another Freudian idea that is no longer widely accepted is that psychological disorders are caused by ____.
Psychoanalytical theory rests on the assumption that the human mind often ____ painful experiences. Many of today's researchers think that this process is much ____ than Freud believed. They also believe that when it does occur, it is a reaction to terrible ____.
Today's psychologists agree with Freud that we have limited access to all that goes on in our minds. Research confirms the reality of ____ learning.
An example of the defense mechanism that Freud called ___ is what researchers today call the ____ effect. This refers to our tendency to ____ the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Another Freudian idea that received support is that people defend themselves against ____. According to ____ theory, when people are faced with a threatening world, they act to enhance their ____ and may adhere more strongly to the ____ that create meaning in their lives.
Criticism of psychoanalysis as a scientific theory centers on the fact that it provides _____ explanations and does not offer _____.
Two influential theories of humanistic psychology were proposed by ____ and ____. These theories offered a _____ perspective that emphasized human _____.
According to Maslow, humans are motivated by needs that are organized into a ____. Maslow refers to the process of fulfilling one's potential as ____ and the process of finding meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self as ____. Many people who fulfill their potential have been moved by ____ that surpass ordinary consciousness.
According to Rogers, a person nurtures growth in a relationship by being ____, ____ and ____.
People who are accepting of others offer them ____. By so doing, they enable others to be ____ without fearing the loss of their esteem.
unconditional positive regard
For both Maslow and Rogers, an important feature of personality is how an individual perceives himself or herself; this is the person's ____.
Humanistic psychologists sometimes use ____ to asses personality, that is, to evaluate the ____.
One questionnaire, inspired by Carl Rogers, asked people to describe themselves both as they would ____like to be and as they ____ are. When these two selves are alike, the self-concept is ____.
Some humanistic psychologists feel that questionnaires are ____ and prefer to use ____ to assess personality.
Humanistic psychologists have influenced such diverse areas as ___, ____, ____, and ____. They have also had a major impact on today's ____ psychology.
Gordon Allport developed trait theory, which defines personality in terms of people's characteristic ____ and conscious ____. Unlike Freud, he was generally less interested in ____ individual traits than in ____ them.
The _________ classifies people according to Carl Jung's personality types. Although recently criticized for its lack of predictive value, this test has been widely used in ____ and ____ counseling.
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
To reduce the number of traits to a few basic ones, psychologists use the statistical procedure of _____. The Eysencks think that two or three genetically influenced personality dimensions are sufficient; these include _____ and emotional _____.
Some researchers believe that extraverts seek stimulation because their level of _____ is relatively low. PET scans reveal an area of the brain's ____ lobe that is less active in ____ than in ____. Dopamine and dopamine related neural activity tend to be higher in ____.
Research increasingly reveals that our ___ play an important role in defining our ____ and ____ style.
Jerome Kagan attributes differences in children's ____ and ____ to autonomic nervous system reactivity.
Personality differences among dogs, birds, and other animals ___ stable.
Questionnaires that categorize personality traits are called ____.
The most widely used of all such personality tests is the _____; its questions are grouped into ____ clinical scales.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
This test was developed by testing a large pool of items and selecting those that differentiated particular individuals; in other words, the test was ___ derived.
Researchers have arrived at a cluster of five factors that seem to describe the major features of personality. What are the Big Five?
1. Emotional stability: on a continuum from calm to anxious; secure to insecure
2. Extraversion: from sociable to retiring
3. Openness: from preference for variety to routine
4. Agreeableness: from soft-hearted to ruthless
5. Conscientiousness: from disciplined to impulsive
While some traits wane a bit during early and middle adulthood, others increase. For example, as young adults mature and learn to manage their commitments, ____ increases. From the thirties through the sixties, ____ increases.
In adulthood, the Big Five are quite ____ with heritability estimated at ___ percent or more for each dimension. Moreover, these traits ____ predict other attributes and ____ descriptive of people around the world.
Human behavior is influenced both by our inner ____ and by the external ____. The issue of which of these is the more important influence on personality is called the ____ controversy.
traits (or dispositions)
situation (or environment)
To be considered a personality trait, a characteristic must persist over ____ and across ____. Research studies reveal that personality trait scores ____ with scores obtained 7 years later. The consistency of specific behaviors from one situation to the next is ____.
not predictably consistent
An individual's score on a personality test ____ very predictive of his or her behavior in any given situation.
People's expressive styles, which include their ____, manner of ___, and ____, are quite _____ which ___ reveal distinct personality traits.
Social-cognitive theory, which focuses on how the individual and the ____ interact, was proposed by ____.
Social-cognitive theorists propose that personality is shaped by the mutual influence of our internal ____, ____ factors, and ____ factors. This is the principle of _____.
In studying how we interact with our environment, social-cognitive theorists point to the importance of our sense of ____. Individuals who believe that they control their own destinies are said to perceive an ____. Individuals who believe that their fate is determined by outside forces are said to perceive an _____. Self control, which is the ability to control ____ and ____ gratification, predicts good ___, better ____, and ____ success.
internal locus of control
external locus of control
Seligman found that exposure to inescapable punishment produced a passive resignation in behavior, which he called ____.
People become happier when they are given ____ control over what happens to them.
One measure of a person's feelings of effectiveness is his or her degree of ____. Our characteristic manner of explaining negative and positive events is called our ____.
Our natural positive-thinking bias can sometimes promote an ____ about future life events that can be unhealthy.
unrealistic (illusory) optimism
During its first century, psychology focused primarily on understanding and alleviating _____. Today however, thriving Western cultures have an opportunity to create a more ____ psychology, focused on 3 pillars:
a. positive emotions
b. positive character
c. positive groups, communities, and cultures
People tend to be most overconfident of their abilities in areas where they are, in fact, most ____.
It follows from the social-cognitive perspective that the best means of predicting people's future behavior is their ______.
past behavior in similar situations
The major criticism of the social-cognitive perspective is that it fails to appreciate a person's ____.
One of Western psychology's most vigorously researched topics today is the ____.
Hazel Markus and colleagues introduced the concept on an individual's _____ to emphasize how our aspirations motivate us through specific goals.
Our tendency to overestimate the extent to which others are noticing and evaluating us is called the _____.
According to self theorists, personality development hinges on our feelings of self worth or _____. People who feel good about themselves are relatively ____ outside pressures.
In a series of experiments, researchers found that people who were made to feel insecure were ____ critical of other persons or tended to express heightened _____.
Research has shown that most people tend to have ____ self-esteem.
The tendency of people to judge themselves favorably is called the ____ bias.
Responsibility for success is generally accepted ____ readily than responsibility for failure.
Most people perceive their own behavior and traits as being ____ average.
Brushman and Baumeister found that students with unrealistically ____ self-esteem were most likely to become exceptionally aggressive after criticism.
Some researchers distinguish ____ self-esteem, which is fragile and sensitive to ____, from ____ self-esteem, which is less focused on ____ evaluations.
Mental health workers label thoughts, feelings, and actions disordered when they are ____, ____, and ____.
This definition emphasizes that standards of acceptability for behavior are ____.
ADHD, or ____________ plagues children who display one or more of 3 key symptoms: ____, _____, and ____.
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADHD is diagnosed more often in ____. In the past 2 decades, the proportion of American children being treated for this disorder _____ dramatically. Experts ____ that ADHD is a real disorder.
ADHD _____ thought by some to be heritable, and it ____ caused by eating too much sugar or poor schools. ADHD is often accompanied by a ___ disorder or with behavior that is ____ or temper prone.
The view that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the ____ model. According to this view, psychological disorders are viewed as mental ____, or ____, diagnosed on the basis of ____ and cured through ____.
One of the first reformers to advocate this position and call for providing more humane living conditions for the mentally ill was ____.
Today's psychologists recognize that all behavior arises from the interaction of ___ and ____. To presume that a person is "mentally ill" attributes the condition solely to an ____ problem.
Major psychological disorders such as ____ and ____ are universal; others, such as ______ and ____, are culture bound. These culture-bound disorders may share an underlying ____, such as ____, yet differ in their ____.
Most mental health workers today take a ____ approach, whereby they assume that disorders are influenced by _____ and ____, inner ____, and ____ and ____ circumstances.
The most widely used system for classifying psychological disorders is the American Psychiatric Association Manual, commonly known by its abbreviation, ____. It was developed in coordination with the World Health Organization's _____ of ____. This manual ____ explain the cause of a disorder; rather, it ____ the disorder.
Independent diagnoses made with the current manual generally ____ agreement.
One criticism of DSM-IV is that as the number of disorder categories has ____ and the number of adults who meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric ailment has ___.
Studies have shown that labeling has ____ effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behavior.
Most people with psychological disorders ____ violent. A 1999 study found that 16% of US prison inmates had severe ____.
Anxiety disorders are psychological disorders characterized by ____.
distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Five anxiety disorders discussed in the text are _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.
generalized anxiety disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder
When a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and physiologically aroused for no apparent reason, he or she is diagnosed as suffering from a ____ disorder. In Freud's term, the anxiety is _____.
Generalized anxiety disorder can lead to physical problems, such as ____ and ____. In some instances, anxiety may intensify dramatically and unpredictably and be accompanied by heart palpitations or choking, for example; people with these symptoms are said to have ____. This anxiety may escalate into a minutes-long episode of intense fear, or a _____.
high blood pressure
People who ____ have an increased risk of a first-time ____ because ____ is a stimulant.
When a person has an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, the diagnosis is a ____. Although in many situations the person can live with the problem, some ____ such as a fear of thunderstorms, are incapacitating.
When a person has an intense fear of being scrutinized by others, the diagnosis is a ____. People who fear situations in which escape or help might not be possible when panic strikes suffer from ___.
When a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions, an ____ disorder is diagnosed.
Older people are ____ likely than teens and young adults to suffer from this disorder.
Traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat, can produce _____ disorder. The symptoms of this disorder include ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____. People who have a sensitive ____ are more vulnerable to this disorder. Research with identical twins indicates that ____ may also play a role.
Researchers who believe this disorder may be over diagnosed point to the ____ of most people who suffer trauma. Also, suffering can lead to ____, in which people experience an increased appreciation in life.
Freud assumed that anxiety disorders are symptoms of submerged mental energy that derives from intolerable impulses that were ____ during childhood.
Learning theorists, drawing on research in which rats are given unpredictable electric shocks, link general anxiety with ____ conditioning of ____.
Some fears arise from ____, such as when a person who fears heights after a fall also comes to fear airplanes.
Phobias and compulsive behaviors reduce anxiety and thereby are ____. Through ____ learning, someone might also learn fear by seeing others display their own fears.
Humans probably ____ biologically prepared to develop certain fears. Compulsive acts are typically exaggerations of behaviors that contributed to our species' _____.
The anxiety response probably ____ genetically influenced. There may be anxiety ____ that affect brain levels of the neurotransmitter ____, which influences mood, as well as the neurotransmitter ____, which regulates the brain's alarm centers.
fMRI scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal excessive activity in a brain region called the ____ cortex. Some antidepressants drugs dampen fear-circuit activity in the ____, thus reducing this behavior.
In somatoform disorders, symptoms take a ___ form without having an apparent ____ cause.
One type of this disorder is ____, in which ____ is presumably converted into a physical symptom. This disorder is ____ common today than in Freud's time.
People suffering from ____ interpret normal sensations as symptoms of serious disease.
In ____ disorders, a person experiences a sudden loss of ___ or change in ____.
Dissociation means to become ____ from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Dissociation itself ____ rare.
is not so
A person who develops 2 or more distinct personalities is suffering from _____ disorder.
Nicholas Spanos has argued that such people may merely be playing different ____.
Those who accept this as a genuine disorder point to evidence that differing personalities may be associated with distinct ____ and ____ states.
The psychoanalytic and learning perspectives view dissociative disorders as ways of dealing with ____. Others view them as a protective response to histories of _____. Skeptics claim these disorders are sometimes contrived by ____ people and sometimes constructed out of the ___ interaction.
Mood disorders are psychological disorders characterized by ____. They come in 2 forms: The experience of prolonged depression with no discernible cause is called _____ disorder. When a person's mood alternates between depression and the hyperactive state of ____, a ____ disorder is diagnosed.
Although ____ are more common, ____ is the number one reason that people seek mental health services. It is also the leading cause of disability worldwide.
The possible signs of depression include _____.
lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in family, friends, and activities
Major depression occurs when its signs las _____ or more with no apparent cause.
Depressed persons usually ____recover without therapy.
Symptoms of mania include _____.
euphoria, hyperactivity, and a wildly optimistic state
Bipolar disorder is less common among creative professionals who rely on ____ and ____ than among those who rely on ____ expression and vivid ____.
The commonality of depression suggests that its ____ must also be common.
Compared with men, women are ____ vulnerable to major depression. In general, women are most vulnerable to disorders involving ____ states, such as _____.
depression, anxiety, and inhibited sexual desire
Men's disorders tend to be more ____ and include ____.
alcohol abuse, antisocial conduct, and lack of impulse control
It usually ____ the case that a depressive episode has been triggered by a stressful event. An individual's vulnerability to depression also increases following, for example, _____.
a family member's death, loss of a job, a marital crisis, or a physical assault
With each new generation, the rate of depression is ____ and the disorder is striking _____. In North America today, young adults are ___ times more likely than their grandparents to suffer depression.
Mood disorders ____ to run in families. Studies of ___ also reveal that genetic influences on mood disorders are ____.
To determine which genes are involved in depression, researchers use ____, in which they examine the ____ of both affected and unaffected family members.
The brains of depressed people tend to be ___ active, especially in an area of the ____ lobe. In severely depressed patients, this brain area may also be ____ in size. The brain's ____, which is important in processing ____, is vulnerable to stress-related damage. Anti-depressant drugs that boost ____ may promote recovery by stimulating neurons in this area of the brain.
Depression may also be caused by ____ levels of two neurotransmitters, ____ and ____. Most people with a history of depression also were habitual ____.
Drugs that alleviate mania reduce ____; drugs that relieve depression increase ____ or ____ supplies by blocking either their ____ or their chemical ____.
According to the social-cognitive perspective, depression may be linked with _____ beliefs and a ____ style.
Such beliefs may arise from ____, the feeling that can arise when the individual repeatedly experiences uncontrollable, painful events.
Gender differences in responding to ____ help explain why women have been twice as vulnerable to depression.
According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, when trouble strikes, men tend to ____ and women tend to ____.
think (or overthink)
According to Martin Seligman, depression is more common in Western cultures that emphasize ____ and and that have shown a decline in commitment to ___ and family.
Depression-prone people respond to bad events in an especially ___ way.
Being withdrawn, self focused, and complaining tends to elicit social ____.
Schizophrenia or "split mind," refers not to a split personality but rather to a split from ____.
Three manifestations of schizophrenia are disorganized ____, disturbed ____, and inappropriate ____ and ____.
The distorted, false beliefs of schizophrenia patients are called ____.
Many psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia to a breakdown in the capacity for ____.
The disturbed perceptions of people suffering from schizophrenia may take the form of ____, which usually are ____.
Some victims of schizophrenia lapse into a zombielike state of apparent apathy, or ____; others, who exhibit ____, may remain motionless for hours and then become agitated.
People with schizophrenia who display inappropriate behavior are said to have ____, while those with toneless voices and expressionless faces are said to have ____.
Schizophrenia is a cluster of disorders, including 5 subtypes: preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, or ____; disordered speech or behavior, or _____; immobility, or ____; many and varied symptoms, or ____; and withdrawal, or _____.
When schizophrenia develops slowly (called ____ schizophrenia), recovery is ____ likely than when it develops rapidly in reaction to particular life stresses (called ____ shizophrenia).
chronic (or process)
acute (or reactive)
The brain tissue of schizophrenia patients has been found to have an excess of receptors for the neurotransmitter _____. Drugs that block these receptors have been found to ____ schizophrenia symptoms.
Brain scans have shown that many people suffering from schizophrenia have abnormally ____ brain activity in the ____ lobes.
Enlarged, ____-filled areas and a corresponding ___ of cerebral tissue is also characteristic of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients also have a smaller-than-normal ____, which may account for their difficulty in filtering ____ and focusing ____.
Some scientists contend that the brain abnormalities of schizophrenia may be caused by a prenatal problem, such as ____; birth complications, such as ____; or a ______ contracted by the mother.
low birth at weight
Twin studies ____ the contention that heredity plays a role in schizophrenia.
The role of the prenatal environment in schizophrenia is demonstrated by the fact that identical twins who share the same ____, and are therefore more likely to experience the same prenatal ____, are more likely to share the disorder.
Adoption studies ____ a genetic link in the development of schizophrenia.
It appears that for schizophrenia to develop there must be both a ____ predisposition and other factors such as those listed earlier that "____" the ____ that predispose this disease.
Personality disorders exist when an individual has character traits that are enduring and impair _____.
A fearful sensitivity to rejection may predispose the ____ personality disorder. Eccentric behaviors, such as emotionless disengagement, are characteristic of the ____ personality disorder. The third cluster exhibits dramatic or ____ behaviors, such as the ____ or ____ personality disorders.
An individual who seems to have no conscience, lies, steals, is generally irresponsible, and may be criminal is said to have an ____personality. Previously, this person was labeled a ____.
pscychopath or sociopath
Studies of biological relatives of those with antisocial and unemotional tendencies suggest that there ____ a biological predisposition to such traits.
Some studies have detected early signs of antisocial behavior in children as young as ____. Antisocial adolescents tended to have been ____, ____, unconcerned with ____ and low in ____.
3 to 6
PET scans of murderers' brains reveal reduced activity in the ____, an area of the cortex that helps control ____.
As in other disorders, in antisocial personality, genetics ____ the whole story.
Research reveals that approximately ____% of adult Americans suffered a clinically significant mental disorder during the prior year.
The incidence of serious psychological disorders is ____ among those below the poverty line
In terms of age of onset, most psychological disorders appear by ____ adulthood. Some, such as the ____ and _____, appear during childhood.
Mental health therapies are classified as either ____ therapies or ____ therapies.
Psychological therapy is commonly called ____. This type of therapy is appropriate for disorders that are ____.
Biomedical therapies include the use of ____ and medical procedures that act directly on the patient's ____.
Some therapists, particularly those who adopt a biopsychosocial view, blend several psychotherapy techniques and so are said to take an ____ approach. Closely related to this approach is ____, which attempts to combine methods into a single, coherent system.
The goal of Freud's psychoanalysis, which is based on his personality theory, it to help the patient gain ___.
Freud assumed that many psychological problems originate in childhood impulses and conflicts that have been ____.
Psychoanalysts attempt to bring ____ feelings into ____ awareness where they can be dealt with.
Freud's technique in which a patient says whatever come to mind is called _____.
When, in the course of therapy, a person omits shameful or embarrassing material, ____ is occurring. Insight is facilitated by the analyst's _____ of the meaning of such omissions, of dreams and of other information revealed during therapy sessions.
Freud referred to the hidden meaning of a dream as its _____.
When strong feelings, similar to those experienced in other important relationships, are developed toward the therapist, ____ has occurred.
Critics point out that psychoanalyst's interpretations are hard to ____ and that therapy takes a long time and is very ____.
prove or disprove
Therapists who are influenced by Freud's psychoanalysis but who talk to the patient face to face are ____ therapists. In addition, they work with patients only ____ and for only a few weeks or months. THese therapists focus on ____ across important relationships.
once a week
A brief alternative to psychodynamic therapy that has proven effective with ____ patients is ____.
While this approach aims to help people gain ____ into the roots of their difficulties, it focuses on ____ rather than on past hurts.
Humanistic therapists attempt to help people meet their potential for ____.
The humanistic therapy based on Rogers' theory is called ____ therapy, which is described as ____ therapy because the therapist ____ the person's problems.
does not interpret
To promote growth in clients, Rogerian therapists exhibit ____, ____, and ____.
Rogers' technique of restating and clarifying what a person is saying is called ____. Given a nonjudgmental environment that provides _____, patients are better able to accept themselves as they are and to feel valued and whole.
unconditional positive regard
Three tips for listening more actively in your own relationships are to ____, _____, and ____.
Behavior therapy applies principles of ____ to eliminate troubling behaviors.
One cluster of behavior therapies is based on the principles of _____, as developed in Pavlov's experiments. This technique, in which a new, incompatible response is substituted for a maladaptive one, is called ____. Two examples of this technique are ____ and ____.
One widely used technique of behavior therapy is the ____. The technique of systematic desensitization has been most fully developed by the therapist ____. The assumption behind this technique is that one cannot simultaneously be ____ and relaxed.
The first step in a systematic desensitization is the construction of a ____ of anxiety-arousing stimuli. The second step involves training in _____. In the final step, the person is trained to associate the ____ state with the ____ arousing stimuli.
For those who are unable to visually imagine an anxiety-arousing situation, or too afraid or embarrassed to do so, _____ therapy offers a promising alternative.
virtual reality exposure
In aversive conditioning, the therapist attempts to substitute a ____ response for one that is currently ____ to a harmful stimulus. In this technique, a person's unwanted behaviors become associated with ____ feelings. In the long run, aversive conditioning _____ work.
Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors are key aspects of ____.
Therapies that influence behavior by controlling its consequences are based on principles of ____ conditioning. One application of this form of therapy to institutional settings is the _____, in which desired behaviors are rewarded.
Therapists who teach people new, more constructive ways of thinking are using ____ therapy.
One variety of cognitive therapy attempts to reverse the ____ beliefs often associated with ____ by helping clients are their irrationalities. This therapy was developed by ____.
Training people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations is the goal of ____ training. Students trained to ____ their negative thoughts are less likely to experience future depression.
Treatment that combines an attack on negative thinking with efforts to modify behavior is known as ____ therapy.
The type of group interaction that focuses on the fact that we live and grow in relation to other is ____.
In this type of group, therapists focus on improving ____ within the family.
In contrast to earlier times, most therapy today ___ provided by psychiatrists.
A majority of psychotherapy clients express ____ with their therapy.
Clinicians tend to ____ the effectiveness of psychotherapy.
One reason clinicians' perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy are inaccurate is that clients justify entering therapy by emphasizing their ____ and justify leaving therapy by emphasizing their ____.
Clients' and therapists' perceptions of therapy's effectiveness may be inflated by their ____ that a treatment works. This phenomenon is called the ____. ANother phenomenon that may inflate their perceptions of therapy's effectiveness is the phenomenon called _______, which is the tendency for ____ events or emotions to return to their ____ state.
regression toward the mean
In hopes of better assessing psychotherapy's effectiveness, psychologists have turned to ____ research studies.
The debate over the effectiveness of psychotherapy began with a study by ____; it showed that the rate of improvement for those who received therapy ____higher than the rate for those who did not.
In the best studies of the effectiveness of therapy, researchers randomly assign people on a waiting list to therapy or no therapy and later evaluate everyone. These are ____ trials.
A statistical technique that makes it possible to combine the results of many different psychotherapy outcome studies is called ____. Overall, the results of such analyses indicate that psychotherapy is ____.
Comparisons of the effectiveness of different forms of therapy reveal ____ differences, that the type of therapy provider ____ and that whether therapy is provided by an individual therapist or within a group ____.
does not matter
does not make a difference
With phobias, compulsions, and other specific behavior problems, _____ therapies have been the most effective. Other studies have demonstrated that depression may be effectively treated with ____ therapy.
As a rule, psychotherapy is most effective with problems that are ____.
Clinical decision making that integrates research with clinical expertise and patient preferences is called ____.
Today, many forms of ____ are touted as effective treatments for a variety of complaints.
Aside from testimonials, there is very little evidence based on ____ research for such therapies.
In one popular alternative therapy, a therapist triggers eye movements in patients while they imagine ____. This therapy, called _____, has proven ____ as a treatment for nonmilitary _____. However skeptics point to evidence that _____ is just as effective as triggered eye movements in producing beneficial results. The key seems to be in the person's ____ traumatic memories and in a ____ effect.
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
post-traumatic stress disorder
For people who suffer from the wintertime form of depression called ____, timed ____ therapy may be beneficial.
seasonal affective disorder
All form of psychotherapy offer 3 benefits: ____ for demoralized people; a new ___ on oneself; and a relationship that is ____, ____, and ___.
The emotional bond between the therapist and client--the ____--is a key aspect of effective therapy. IN one study of depression treatment, the most effective therapists were those who were perceived as most ___ and ___.
Generally speaking, psychotherapists' personal values ____ influence their therapy. This is particularly significant when the therapist and client are from different ____. Another area of potential value conflict is ____.
In North America, Europe, and Australia most therapists reflect their culture's ____.
Differences in values may help explain the reluctance of some ____ populations to use mental health services.
The American Psychological Association suggests that a person should seek help when he or she has feelings of ____, a deep and lasting ____, disruptive ____, sudden ____ shifts, and ____ rituals, for example.
As noted earlier, therapy involving changing the brain's functioning is referred to as ____ therapy. THe most widely used biomedical treatments are the ___ therapies. Thanks to these therapies, the number of residents in mental hospitals has ____ sharply.
The field that studies the effects of drugs on the mind and behaviors is ____.
To guard against the ___ effect and normal ____, neither the patients nor the staff involved in a study may be aware of which condition a given individual is in; this is called a ___ study.
One effect of ____ drugs such as ___ is to help those experiencing ____ symptoms of schizophrenia by decreasing their responsive to irrelevant stimuli. Schizophrenia patients who are apathetic and withdrawn may be more effectively treated with atypical antipsychotics such as ____.
The antipsychotic drugs work by blocking the receptor sites for the neurotransmitter ____. The atypical antipsychotics also target ___ receptors.
Long term use of antipsychotic drugs can produce _____, which involves involuntary movements of the muscles of the ____, ____, and ____.
Xanax and Ativan are classified as ____ drugs.
These drugs depress activity in the ____.
central nervous system
When used in combination with ___, these drugs can help people cope with frightening situations.
Antianxiety drugs have been criticized for merely reducing ____, rather than resolving underlying ____. These drugs can also cause ____.
Drugs that are prescribe to alleviate depression are called ___ drugs. They are increasingly being used to treat ____ disorders. These drugs work by increasing levels of neurotransmitters ____ or ____.
One example of this type of drug is ____, which works by blocking the reabsorption and removal of ____ from synapses and is therefore called a ____ drug. Increased serotonin promotes ____, the development of new brain cells.
Equally effective in calming anxious people and energizing depressed people is ____ which has positive side effects. Even better is to use drugs, which work ____ in conjunction with _____ therapy which works ___.
Although people with depression often improve after one month on antidepressants, studies demonstrate that a large percentage of the effectiveness is due to ____ or a ____.
To stabilize the mood swings of a bipolar disorder, the simple salt ___ is often prescribed.
Another effective drug in the control of mania was originally used to treat epilepsy; it is ____.
The therapeutic technique in which the patient receives an electric shock to the brain is referred to as ____ therapy, abbreviated as ____.
ECT is most often used with patients suffering from severe ____. Research evidence ____ ECT's effectiveness with such patients.
The mechanism by which ECT works is ____.
A gentler alternative is a chest ___ that intermittently stimulates the ____ nerve.
Another gentler procedure called ____ aims to treat depression by presenting pulses through a magnetic coil held close to a person's skull above the right eyebrow. Unlike ECT, this procedure produces no ___, ___ loss, or other side effects. This procedure may work by energizing the brain's left ____, which is relatively inactive in depressed patients.
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
The biomedical therapy in which a portion of brain tissue is removed or destroyed is called ____.
In the 1930s, Moniz developed an operation called the ____. In this procedure, the ____ lobe of the brain is disconnected from the rest of the brain.
Today, most psychosurgery has been replaced by the use of ____ or some other form of treatment.
A recent approach to therapy promotes ____ change, which includes regular aerobic exercise, adequate sleep, light exposure, social connection, anti-rumination, and nutritional supplementation.
The relative success of this ____ approach seems to confirm that everything psychological is also biological and that we are all social creatures.
Psychotherapies and biomedical therapies locate the cause of psychological disorders within the ____.
An alternative viewpoint is that many psychological disorders are responses to ____.
a disturbing and stressful society
According to this viewpoint, it is not just the ____ who needs treatment but also the person's ____.
One advocate of ___ mental health, George Albee, believes that many social stresses undermine people's sense of ____, ____ and ____. These stresses include ____ work that is ____, constant ____, ____, ____ and ____.
Albee's views remind us that disorders are not just biological and not just environmental or psychological because we are all an ____ system.
Psychologists who study how we think about, influence, and relate to one another are called ____.
Heider's theory of how we explain others' behavior is the ___ theory. According to this theory, we attribute behavior to either to an internal cause, which is called a ____, or to an external cause, which is called a ____.
Most people tend to ___ the extent to which people's actions are influenced by social situations because their ___ is focused on the person. This tendency is called the ____. When explaining our own behavior, or that of someone we know well, this tendency is ____. When observers view the world from others' perspectives, attributions are ____.
fundamental attribution error
Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose our responses are called ____. When people focus on an issue and respond favorably to an argument, _____ has occurred. Persuasion may also occur through the ____ as people respond to incidental cues such as a speaker's appearance.
central route persuasion
Many research studies demonstrate that our attitudes are strongly influenced by our ____. One example of this is the tendency for people who agree to a small request to comply later with a larger one. This is the ___ phenomenon.
actions or behavior
foot in the door
When you follow the social prescriptions for how you should act as, say, a college student, you are adopting a ____.
Taking on a set of behaviors, or acting in a certain way, generally ____ people's attitudes.
According to ____ theory, thoughts and feelings change because people are motivated to justify actions that would otherwise seem hypocritical. This theory was proposed by ____.
Dissonance theory predicts that people induced (without coercion) to behave contrary to their true attitudes will be motivated to reduce the resulting ____ by changing their ____.
The chameleon effect refers to our natural tendency to unconsciously ___ others' expressions, postures, and voice tones. This helps us to feel what they are feeling, referred to as ___.
Copycat violence is a serious example of the effects of ____ on behavior.
Sociologists have found that suicides sometimes increase following a ____ suicide.
The term that refers to the tendency to adjust one's behavior to coincide with an assumed group standard is ____.
The psychologist who first studied the effects of group pressure on conformity is ____.
In this study, when the opinion of other group members was contradicted by objective evidence, research participants ____ willing to conform to the group opinion.
One reason that people comply with social pressure is to gain approval or avoid rejection; this is called ____. Understood rules for accepted and expected behavior are called social ____.
normative social influence
Another reason people comply is that they have genuinely been influenced by what they have learned from others; this type of influence is called ___.
informational social influence
The classic social psychology studies of obedience were conducted by ____. When ordered by the experimenter to electrically shock the "learner," the majority of the participants (the "teachers") in these studies ____. More recent studies have found that women's compliance rates in similar situations were ____ men's.
In getting people to administer increasingly larger shocks, Milgram was in effect applying the _____ technique.
The Asch and Milgram studies demonstrate that strong ____ influences can make ____ people ____ to falsehoods and ____ orders to commit cruel acts.
The tendency to perform a task better when other people are present is called ____. In general, people become aroused in the presence of others, and arousal enhances the correct response on a(n) ___ task. Later research revealed that arousal strengthens the response that is most ____ in a given situation.
Researchers have found that the reactions of people in crowded situations are often ____.
Ingham found that people worked ___ in a team tug-of-war than they had in individual contest. This phenomenon has been called ____.
The feeling of anonymity and loss of self-restraint that an individual may develop when in a group is called ___.
Over time, the initial differences between groups usually ____.
The enhancement of each group's prevailing tendency over time is called ____. Electronic discussions on the ____ provide a medium for this tendency.
When the desire for group harmony overrides realistic thinking in individuals, the phenomenon known as ____ has occurred.
In considering the power of social influence, we cannot overlook the interaction of ___ (the power of the situation) and ____ (the power of the individual).
The power of one or two individuals to sway the opinion of the majority is called ____.
A minority opinion will have the most success in swaying the majority if it takes a stance that is ____.
Prejudice is an ____ (and usually ____) attitude toward a group that involves overgeneralized beliefs known as ____.
Like all attitudes, prejudice is a mixture of ____, ____, and predispositions to ____.
Prejudice is a negative ____ and ____ is a negative ____.
Americans today express ____ racial and gender prejudice than they did 50 years ago.
Blatant forms of prejudice ____ diminished. However, even people who deny holding prejudiced attitudes may carry negative ____ about race.
Studies of prejudice indicate that it is often an unconscious, or ____, action. Several studies have shown that the more a person's features are perceived as typical of their ____ the more likely they are to elicit ____ responding.
Today's biopsychosocial approach has stimulated neuroscience studies that have detected implicit prejudice in people's ____-muscle responses and in the activation of their brain's ____.
Worldwide, ____ are more likely to live in poverty. People tend to perceive women as being more ___ and ____ and less ____ than men.
For those with money, power, and prestige, prejudice often serves as a means of ____ social inequalities.
Discrimination increases prejudice through the tendency of people to ____ victims for their plight.
Through our ____, we associate ourselves with certain groups.
Prejudice is also fostered by the ___, a tendency to favor groups to which one belongs--called the ___-- while excluding others, or the ____.
Research studies also reveal that the terror of facing ____ tends to heighten patriotism and produce loathing and aggression toward people who threaten one's ____.
That prejudice derives from attempts to blame others for one's frustration is proposed by the ____ theory.
People who feel loved and supported become more ___ to and ___ of those who differ from them.
Research suggests that prejudice may also derive from ____, the process by which we attempt to simplify our world by classifying people into groups. One by-product of this process is that people tend to ____ the similarity of those within a group. One manifestation of this is the ____, the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than those of other races.
Another factor that fosters the formation of group stereotypes and prejudice is the tendency to ____ from vivid or memorable cases.
The belief that people get what they deserve--that the good are rewarded and the bad punished--is expressed in the ____ phenomenon. This phenomenon is based in part on ____, the tendency to believe that one would have foreseen how something turned out.
Aggressive behavior is defined by psychologists as ____. THus, psychologists ____ consider assertive salespeople to be aggressive.
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Like other behaviors, aggression emerges from the interaction of ___ and ___.
Today, most psychologists ____ consider human aggression to be instinctive.
In humans, aggressiveness ____ greatly from culture to culture, era to era, and person to person.
That there are genetic influences on aggression can be shown by the fact that many species of animals have been ____ for aggressiveness.
Twin studies suggest that genes ___ influence human aggression. One genetic marker of those who commit the most violence is the ____ chromosome. Studies of violent criminals reveal diminished activity in the brain's ____, which play an important role in controlling ____.
In humans and animals, aggression is facilitated by ____ systems, which are in turn influenced by ____, alcohol, and other substances in the blood.
The aggressive behavior of animals can be manipulated by altering the levels of the hormone ____. When this level is _____, aggressive tendencies are reduced.
High levels of testosterone correlate with ____, low tolerance for ___, ____, and ____. Among teenage boys and adult men, high testosterone also correlates with ___, hard ____, and aggressive-bullying responses to ____. With age, testosterone levels--and aggressiveness--____. Although testosterone heightens aggressiveness, aggression ____ testosterone level.
One drug that unleashes aggressive responses to provocation is ____.
According to the ____ principle, inability to achieve a goal leads to anger, which may generate aggression.
Other aversive stimuli can provoke hostility, including _____.
physical pain, personal insults, foul odors, hot temperatures, cigarette smoke
Aggressive behavior can be learned through ____, as shown by the fact that people use aggression where they've found it pays, and through ____ of others.
observation (or imitation)
Crime rates are higher in countries in which there is a large disparity between those who are ____ and those who are ____. High violence rates also are typical of cultures and families in which there is minimal ____.
Once established, aggressive behavior patterns are ____ to change. However, ____ programs have been successful in bringing down re-arrest rates of juvenile offenders and gang members.
Violence on television tends to ____ people to cruelty and ____ them to respond aggressively when they are provoked.
The "rape myth" is the mistaken idea that _____. Most rapists _____ this myth.
some women invite or enjoy rape
Experiments have shown that, among other factors, depictions by the media of ____ most directly affect men's acceptance and performance and aggression against women. Such depictions may create ____ to which people respond when they are in new situations or are uncertain how to act.
Kids who play a lot of violent video games see the world as more ____, get into more ____ and ____, and get worse ____.
Research studies of the impact of violent video games ____ the idea that we feel better if we "blow off steam" by venting our emotions. This idea is the ____. Expressing anger breeds ____ anger.
Many factors contribute to aggression, including ____ factors, such as an increase in testosterone; ____ factors, such as frustration; and ____ factors, such as deindividuation.
A prerequisite for, and perhaps the most powerful predictor of, attraction is _____.
When people are repeatedly exposed to unfamiliar stimuli, their liking of the stimuli _____. This phenomenon is the ____ effect. Robert Zajonc contends that this phenomenon was ____ for our ancestors, for whom the unfamiliar was often dangerous. One implication of this is that ____ against those who are culturally different may be a primitive, ____ emotional response.
Our first impression of another person is most influenced by the person's ____.
In a sentence, list several of the characteristics that physically attractive people are judged to possess:_________.
attractive people are perceived as happier, more sensitive, more successful, and more socially skilled.
A person's attractiveness ____ strongly related to his or her self-esteem or happiness.
Cross-cultural research reveals that men judge women as more attractive if they have a ____ appearance whereas women judge men who appear ____, ____, and ____ as more attractive. People also seem to prefer physical features that are neither unusually ____ nor ____. Average faces, which tend to be ____, are judged to be more sexually attractive.
Compared with strangers, friends and couples are more likely to be similar in terms of _____.
attitudes, beliefs, interests, religion, race, education, intelligence, smoking behavior, economic status, age
Hatfield has distinguished 2 types of love: ____ love and ____ love.
According to the 2 factor theory, emotions have 2 components: physical ____ and a ____ label.
When college men were placed in an aroused state, their feelings toward an attractive women ____ more positive than those of men who had not been aroused.
Companionate love is promoted by ____--mutual sharing and giving by both partners. Another key ingredient of loving relationships is the revealing of intimate aspects of ourselves through ____.
An unselfish regard for the welfare of other is called ____.
According to Darley and Latane, people will help only if a 3 stage decision making process is completed: Bystanders must first ____ the incident, then ___ it as an emergency, and finally _____ for helping.
When people who overheard a seizure victim calling for help thought others were hearing the same plea, they were ____ likely to go to his aid than when they thought no one else was aware of the emergency.
In a series of staged accidents, Latane and Darley found that a bystander was ____ likely to help if other bystanders were present. This phenomenon has been called the _____.
The idea that social behavior aims to maximize rewards and minimize costs is proposed by ____ theory.
One rule of social behavior tells us to return help to those who have helped us; this is the ____ norm.
Another rule tells us to help those who need our help; this is the ____ norm.
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas is called ____. This perception can take place between individuals, _____, or _____.
Situations in which conflicting parties become caught in mutually destructive behavior by pursuing their own self-interests are called ____.
The distorted images people in conflict form of each other are called ____ perceptions.
In most situations, establishing contact between 2 conflicting groups ____ sufficient to resolve conflict.
In Sherif's study, two conflicting groups of campers were able to resolve their conflicts by working together on projects in which they shared ____ goals. Shared ____ breed solidarity, as demonstrated by a surge in use of the word ____ in the weeks after 9/11.
When conflicts arise, a 3rd party ____ may facilitate communication and promote understanding.
Osgood has advanced a strategy of coniliation called GRIT, which stands for ____ and ____ in ____. The key to this method is each side's offering of a small ___ gesture in order to increase mutual trust and cooperation.