Psych Exam 13-16

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Personality is defined as an individual's characteristic pattern of ____, ____, and ____.

thinking
feeling
acting

The psychoanalytic perspective on personality was proposed by ____. A second, historically significant perspective was the ____ approach, which focused on people's capacities for ____ and ____.

Sigmund Freud
humanistic
growth
self-fulfillment

Today's theories are more ____ and down-to-earth than these classic theories.

focused

Sigmund Freud was a medical doctor who specialized in ____ disorders.

nervous

Freud developed his theory in response to his observation that many patients had disorders that did not make ___ sense.

neurological

At first, Freud thought ____ would unlock the door to the unconscious.

hypnosis

The technique later used by Freud, in which the patient relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, is called _____.

free association

Freud called his theory and associated techniques, whereby painful unconscious memories are exposed, ____.

psychoanalysis

According to this theory, many of a person's thoughts, wishes, and feelings are hidden in a large____ region. Some of the thoughts in this region can be retrieved at will into consciousness; these thoughts are said to be ____. Many of the memories of this region, however, are blocked, or ____ from consciousness.

unconscious
preconscious
repressed

Freud believed that a person's ____ wishes are often reflected in his or her beliefs, habits, symptoms, and ____ of the tongue or pen. Freud called the remembered content of dreams the _________, which he believed to be a censored version of the dream's true ____.

unconscious
slips
manifest content
latent content

Freud believed that all facets of personality arise from conflict between our ____ impulses and the ____ restraints against them.

biological
social

According to Freud, personality consists of three interacting structures: the ____, the ____, and the ____.

id
ego
superego

The id is a reservoir of psychic energy that is primarily ____ and operates according to the ____ principle.

unconscious
pleasure

The ego develops ____ the id and consists of perceptions, thoughts, and memories that are mostly ____. The ego operates according to the ____ principle.

after
conscious
reality

The personality structure that reflects moral values is the ____, which Freud believed began emerging at about age ____.

superego
4 or 5

A person with a ____ superego may be self-indulgent; one with an unusually ____ superego may be virtuous but guilt ridden.

weak
strong

According to Freud, personality is formed as the child passes through a series of ____ stages, each of which is focused on a distinct body area called an _____.

psychosexual
erogenous zone

The first stage is the ____ stage, which takes place during the first 18 months of life. During this stage, the id's energies are focused on behaviors such as ____.

oral
sucking (also biting, chewing)

The second stage is the ____ stage, which last from about age ____ months to _____ months.

anal
18
36

The third stage is the ____ stage, which lasts roughly from ages ____ to ____ years. During this stage, the id's energies are focused on the ____. Freud also believed that during this stage children develop sexual desires for the ____ sex parent. Freud referred to these feelings as the ____ in boys. Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experience a parallel _____.

phallic
3
6
genitals
opposite
Oedipus complex
Electra complex

Freud believed that ____ with the same-sex parent is the basis for what psychologists now call _____.

identification
gender identity

During the next stage, sexual feelings are repressed: this phase is called the ____ stage and lasts until puberty.

latency

The final stage of development is called the ____ stage.

genital

According to Freud, it is possible for a person's development to become blocked in any of the stages; in such an instance, the person is said to be ____.

fixated

The ego attempts to protect itself against anxiety through the use of ____. The process underlying each of these mechanisms is ____.

defense mechanisms
repression

Dealing with anxiety by returning to an earlier stage of development is called ____.

regression

When a person reacts in a manner opposite that of his or her true feelings, ____ is said to have occurred.

reaction formation

When a person attributes his or her own feelings to another person, ____ has occured.

projection

When a person offers a false, self-justifying explanation for his or her actions, ____ has occurred.

rationalization

When impulses are directed toward an object other than the one that caused arousal, ____ has occurred.

displacement

When a person refuses to believe or even perceive a painful reality, he or she is experiencing ____.

denial

Defense mechanisms are ____ processes.

unconscious

The theorists who established their own, modified versions of psychoanalytic theory are called ____. These theorists typically place ____ emphasis on the conscious mind than Freud did and ____ emphasis on sex and aggression.

neo-Freudians
more
less

Adler

emphasized the social, rather than the sexual, tensions of childhood and said that much of behavior is driven by the need to overcome feelings of inferiority

Horney

questioned the male bias in Freud's theory, such as the assumptions that women have weak egos and suffer "penis envy" Like Adler she emphasized social tensions

Jung

emphasized an inherited collective unconscious

Today's psychologists ____ the idea of inherited experiences, which ____ called a ____.

reject
Jung
collective unconscious

More recently, some of Freud's ideas have been incorporated into ____ theory. Unlike Freud, the theorists advocating this perspective do not believe that ____ is the basis of personality. They do agree, however, that much of mental life is ____, that ____ shapes personality, and that we often struggle with _____.

psychodynamic
sex
unconscious
childhood
inner conflicts

Tests that provide subjects with ambiguous stimuli for interpretation are called ____ tests. Henry Murray introduced the personality assessment technique called the ____ Test.

projective
Thematic Apperception

The most widely used projective test is the ____, in which people are shown a series of ____. Critics contend that these tests have ____ validity and reliability.

Rorschach
inkblots
little

Contrary to Frued's theory, research indicates that human development is ____ chidlren gain their gender identity at a(n) _____ age, and the presence of a same sex parent ___ necessary for the child to become strongly masculine or feminine.

lifelong
earlier
is not

Research also disputes Freud's belief that dreams disguise ____ and that defense mechanisms disguise ____ and ___ impulses. Another Freudian idea that is no longer widely accepted is that psychological disorders are caused by ____.

wishes
sexual
aggressive
sexual suppression

Psychoanalytical theory rests on the assumption that the human mind often ____ painful experiences. Many of today's researchers think that this process is much ____ than Freud believed. They also believe that when it does occur, it is a reaction to terrible ____.

represses
rarer
trauma

Today's psychologists agree with Freud that we have limited access to all that goes on in our minds. Research confirms the reality of ____ learning.

unconscious implicit

An example of the defense mechanism that Freud called ___ is what researchers today call the ____ effect. This refers to our tendency to ____ the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.

projection
false consensus
overestimate

Another Freudian idea that received support is that people defend themselves against ____. According to ____ theory, when people are faced with a threatening world, they act to enhance their ____ and may adhere more strongly to the ____ that create meaning in their lives.

anxiety
terror-management
self-esteem
world views

Criticism of psychoanalysis as a scientific theory centers on the fact that it provides _____ explanations and does not offer _____.

after-the-fact
testable predictions

Two influential theories of humanistic psychology were proposed by ____ and ____. These theories offered a _____ perspective that emphasized human _____.

Abraham Maslow
Carl Rogers
third force
potential

According to Maslow, humans are motivated by needs that are organized into a ____. Maslow refers to the process of fulfilling one's potential as ____ and the process of finding meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self as ____. Many people who fulfill their potential have been moved by ____ that surpass ordinary consciousness.

hierarchy
self-actualization
self transcendence
peak experiences

According to Rogers, a person nurtures growth in a relationship by being ____, ____ and ____.

genuine
accepting
empathic

People who are accepting of others offer them ____. By so doing, they enable others to be ____ without fearing the loss of their esteem.

unconditional positive regard
spontaneous

For both Maslow and Rogers, an important feature of personality is how an individual perceives himself or herself; this is the person's ____.

self-concept

Humanistic psychologists sometimes use ____ to asses personality, that is, to evaluate the ____.

questionnaires
self-concept

One questionnaire, inspired by Carl Rogers, asked people to describe themselves both as they would ____like to be and as they ____ are. When these two selves are alike, the self-concept is ____.

ideally
actually
positive

Some humanistic psychologists feel that questionnaires are ____ and prefer to use ____ to assess personality.

depersonalizing
interviews

Humanistic psychologists have influenced such diverse areas as ___, ____, ____, and ____. They have also had a major impact on today's ____ psychology.

counseling
education
child-rearing
management
popular

Gordon Allport developed trait theory, which defines personality in terms of people's characteristic ____ and conscious ____. Unlike Freud, he was generally less interested in ____ individual traits than in ____ them.

behaviors
motives
explaining
describing

The _________ classifies people according to Carl Jung's personality types. Although recently criticized for its lack of predictive value, this test has been widely used in ____ and ____ counseling.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
business
career

To reduce the number of traits to a few basic ones, psychologists use the statistical procedure of _____. The Eysencks think that two or three genetically influenced personality dimensions are sufficient; these include _____ and emotional _____.

factor analysis
extraversion-introversion
stability-instability

Some researchers believe that extraverts seek stimulation because their level of _____ is relatively low. PET scans reveal an area of the brain's ____ lobe that is less active in ____ than in ____. Dopamine and dopamine related neural activity tend to be higher in ____.

brain arousal
frontal
extraverts
introverts
extraverts

Research increasingly reveals that our ___ play an important role in defining our ____ and ____ style.

genes
temperament
behavioral

Jerome Kagan attributes differences in children's ____ and ____ to autonomic nervous system reactivity.

shyness
inhibition

Personality differences among dogs, birds, and other animals ___ stable.

are

Questionnaires that categorize personality traits are called ____.

personality inventories

The most widely used of all such personality tests is the _____; its questions are grouped into ____ clinical scales.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
10

This test was developed by testing a large pool of items and selecting those that differentiated particular individuals; in other words, the test was ___ derived.

empirically

Researchers have arrived at a cluster of five factors that seem to describe the major features of personality. What are the Big Five?

1. Emotional stability: on a continuum from calm to anxious; secure to insecure
2. Extraversion: from sociable to retiring
3. Openness: from preference for variety to routine
4. Agreeableness: from soft-hearted to ruthless
5. Conscientiousness: from disciplined to impulsive

While some traits wane a bit during early and middle adulthood, others increase. For example, as young adults mature and learn to manage their commitments, ____ increases. From the thirties through the sixties, ____ increases.

conscientiousness
agreeableness

In adulthood, the Big Five are quite ____ with heritability estimated at ___ percent or more for each dimension. Moreover, these traits ____ predict other attributes and ____ descriptive of people around the world.

stable
50
do
are

Human behavior is influenced both by our inner ____ and by the external ____. The issue of which of these is the more important influence on personality is called the ____ controversy.

traits (or dispositions)
situation (or environment)
person-situation

To be considered a personality trait, a characteristic must persist over ____ and across ____. Research studies reveal that personality trait scores ____ with scores obtained 7 years later. The consistency of specific behaviors from one situation to the next is ____.

time
situations
correlate
not predictably consistent

An individual's score on a personality test ____ very predictive of his or her behavior in any given situation.

is not

People's expressive styles, which include their ____, manner of ___, and ____, are quite _____ which ___ reveal distinct personality traits.

animation
speaking
gestures
consistent
does

Social-cognitive theory, which focuses on how the individual and the ____ interact, was proposed by ____.

environment
Albert Bandura

Social-cognitive theorists propose that personality is shaped by the mutual influence of our internal ____, ____ factors, and ____ factors. This is the principle of _____.

behaviors
personal
environmental
reciprocal
determinism

In studying how we interact with our environment, social-cognitive theorists point to the importance of our sense of ____. Individuals who believe that they control their own destinies are said to perceive an ____. Individuals who believe that their fate is determined by outside forces are said to perceive an _____. Self control, which is the ability to control ____ and ____ gratification, predicts good ___, better ____, and ____ success.

personal control
internal locus of control
external locus of control
impulses
delay
adjustment
grades
social

Seligman found that exposure to inescapable punishment produced a passive resignation in behavior, which he called ____.

learned helplessness

People become happier when they are given ____ control over what happens to them.

more

One measure of a person's feelings of effectiveness is his or her degree of ____. Our characteristic manner of explaining negative and positive events is called our ____.

optimism
attributional style

Our natural positive-thinking bias can sometimes promote an ____ about future life events that can be unhealthy.

unrealistic (illusory) optimism

During its first century, psychology focused primarily on understanding and alleviating _____. Today however, thriving Western cultures have an opportunity to create a more ____ psychology, focused on 3 pillars:

negative states
positive
a. positive emotions
b. positive character
c. positive groups, communities, and cultures

People tend to be most overconfident of their abilities in areas where they are, in fact, most ____.

incompetent

It follows from the social-cognitive perspective that the best means of predicting people's future behavior is their ______.

past behavior in similar situations

The major criticism of the social-cognitive perspective is that it fails to appreciate a person's ____.

inner traits

One of Western psychology's most vigorously researched topics today is the ____.

self

Hazel Markus and colleagues introduced the concept on an individual's _____ to emphasize how our aspirations motivate us through specific goals.

possible selves

Our tendency to overestimate the extent to which others are noticing and evaluating us is called the _____.

spotlight effect

According to self theorists, personality development hinges on our feelings of self worth or _____. People who feel good about themselves are relatively ____ outside pressures.

self-esteem
independent of

In a series of experiments, researchers found that people who were made to feel insecure were ____ critical of other persons or tended to express heightened _____.

more
racial prejudice

Research has shown that most people tend to have ____ self-esteem.

high

The tendency of people to judge themselves favorably is called the ____ bias.

self-serving

Responsibility for success is generally accepted ____ readily than responsibility for failure.

more

Most people perceive their own behavior and traits as being ____ average.

above

Brushman and Baumeister found that students with unrealistically ____ self-esteem were most likely to become exceptionally aggressive after criticism.

high

Some researchers distinguish ____ self-esteem, which is fragile and sensitive to ____, from ____ self-esteem, which is less focused on ____ evaluations.

defensive
criticism
secure
external

Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Mental health workers label thoughts, feelings, and actions disordered when they are ____, ____, and ____.

deviant
distressful
dysfunctional

This definition emphasizes that standards of acceptability for behavior are ____.

variable

ADHD, or ____________ plagues children who display one or more of 3 key symptoms: ____, _____, and ____.

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
inattention
hyperactivity
impulsivity

ADHD is diagnosed more often in ____. In the past 2 decades, the proportion of American children being treated for this disorder _____ dramatically. Experts ____ that ADHD is a real disorder.

boys
increased
agree

ADHD _____ thought by some to be heritable, and it ____ caused by eating too much sugar or poor schools. ADHD is often accompanied by a ___ disorder or with behavior that is ____ or temper prone.

is
is not
learning
defiant

The view that psychological disorders are sicknesses is the basis of the ____ model. According to this view, psychological disorders are viewed as mental ____, or ____, diagnosed on the basis of ____ and cured through ____.

medical
sickness
psychopathology
symptoms
therapy

One of the first reformers to advocate this position and call for providing more humane living conditions for the mentally ill was ____.

Philippe Pinel

Today's psychologists recognize that all behavior arises from the interaction of ___ and ____. To presume that a person is "mentally ill" attributes the condition solely to an ____ problem.

nature
nurture
internal

Major psychological disorders such as ____ and ____ are universal; others, such as ______ and ____, are culture bound. These culture-bound disorders may share an underlying ____, such as ____, yet differ in their ____.

depression
schizophrenia
anorexia nervosa
bulimia nervosa
dynamic
anxiety
symptoms

Most mental health workers today take a ____ approach, whereby they assume that disorders are influenced by _____ and ____, inner ____, and ____ and ____ circumstances.

biopsychosocial
genetic predispositions
physiological states
physiological dynamics
social
cultural

The most widely used system for classifying psychological disorders is the American Psychiatric Association Manual, commonly known by its abbreviation, ____. It was developed in coordination with the World Health Organization's _____ of ____. This manual ____ explain the cause of a disorder; rather, it ____ the disorder.

DSM-IV-TR
Internal Classification
Diseases
does not
describes

Independent diagnoses made with the current manual generally ____ agreement.

show

One criticism of DSM-IV is that as the number of disorder categories has ____ and the number of adults who meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric ailment has ___.

increased
increased

Studies have shown that labeling has ____ effect on our interpretation of individuals and their behavior.

a significant

Most people with psychological disorders ____ violent. A 1999 study found that 16% of US prison inmates had severe ____.

are not
mental disorders

Anxiety disorders are psychological disorders characterized by ____.

distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

Five anxiety disorders discussed in the text are _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.

generalized anxiety disorder
panic disorder
phobias
obsessive-compulsive disorder
post-traumatic stress disorder

When a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and physiologically aroused for no apparent reason, he or she is diagnosed as suffering from a ____ disorder. In Freud's term, the anxiety is _____.

generalized anxiety
free-floating

Generalized anxiety disorder can lead to physical problems, such as ____ and ____. In some instances, anxiety may intensify dramatically and unpredictably and be accompanied by heart palpitations or choking, for example; people with these symptoms are said to have ____. This anxiety may escalate into a minutes-long episode of intense fear, or a _____.

ulcers
high blood pressure
panic disorder
panic attack

People who ____ have an increased risk of a first-time ____ because ____ is a stimulant.

smoke
panic attack
nicotine

When a person has an irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation, the diagnosis is a ____. Although in many situations the person can live with the problem, some ____ such as a fear of thunderstorms, are incapacitating.

phobia
specific phobias

When a person has an intense fear of being scrutinized by others, the diagnosis is a ____. People who fear situations in which escape or help might not be possible when panic strikes suffer from ___.

social phobia
agoraphobia

When a person cannot control repetitive thoughts and actions, an ____ disorder is diagnosed.

obsessive compulsive

Older people are ____ likely than teens and young adults to suffer from this disorder.

less

Traumatic stress, such as that associated with witnessing atrocities or combat, can produce _____ disorder. The symptoms of this disorder include ____, ____, ____, ____, and ____. People who have a sensitive ____ are more vulnerable to this disorder. Research with identical twins indicates that ____ may also play a role.

post-traumatic stress
haunting memories
night-mares
social withdrawal
jumpy anxiety
insomnia
limbic system
genes

Researchers who believe this disorder may be over diagnosed point to the ____ of most people who suffer trauma. Also, suffering can lead to ____, in which people experience an increased appreciation in life.

survivor resiliency
post-traumatic growth

Freud assumed that anxiety disorders are symptoms of submerged mental energy that derives from intolerable impulses that were ____ during childhood.

repressed

Learning theorists, drawing on research in which rats are given unpredictable electric shocks, link general anxiety with ____ conditioning of ____.

classical
fears

Some fears arise from ____, such as when a person who fears heights after a fall also comes to fear airplanes.

stimulus generalization

Phobias and compulsive behaviors reduce anxiety and thereby are ____. Through ____ learning, someone might also learn fear by seeing others display their own fears.

reinforced
observational

Humans probably ____ biologically prepared to develop certain fears. Compulsive acts are typically exaggerations of behaviors that contributed to our species' _____.

are
survival

The anxiety response probably ____ genetically influenced. There may be anxiety ____ that affect brain levels of the neurotransmitter ____, which influences mood, as well as the neurotransmitter ____, which regulates the brain's alarm centers.

is
genes
serotonin
glutamate

fMRI scans of persons with obsessive-compulsive disorder reveal excessive activity in a brain region called the ____ cortex. Some antidepressants drugs dampen fear-circuit activity in the ____, thus reducing this behavior.

anterior cingulate
amygdala

In somatoform disorders, symptoms take a ___ form without having an apparent ____ cause.

bodily (somatic)
physical

One type of this disorder is ____, in which ____ is presumably converted into a physical symptom. This disorder is ____ common today than in Freud's time.

conversion disorder
anxiety
less

People suffering from ____ interpret normal sensations as symptoms of serious disease.

hypochondriases

In ____ disorders, a person experiences a sudden loss of ___ or change in ____.

dissociative
memory
identify

Dissociation means to become ____ from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings.

separated

Dissociation itself ____ rare.

is not so

A person who develops 2 or more distinct personalities is suffering from _____ disorder.

dissociative identity

Nicholas Spanos has argued that such people may merely be playing different ____.

roles

Those who accept this as a genuine disorder point to evidence that differing personalities may be associated with distinct ____ and ____ states.

brain
body

The psychoanalytic and learning perspectives view dissociative disorders as ways of dealing with ____. Others view them as a protective response to histories of _____. Skeptics claim these disorders are sometimes contrived by ____ people and sometimes constructed out of the ___ interaction.

anxiety
childhood trauma
fantasy-prone
therapist-patient

Mood disorders are psychological disorders characterized by ____. They come in 2 forms: The experience of prolonged depression with no discernible cause is called _____ disorder. When a person's mood alternates between depression and the hyperactive state of ____, a ____ disorder is diagnosed.

emotional extremes
major depressive
mania
bipolar

Although ____ are more common, ____ is the number one reason that people seek mental health services. It is also the leading cause of disability worldwide.

phobias
depression

The possible signs of depression include _____.

lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in family, friends, and activities

Major depression occurs when its signs las _____ or more with no apparent cause.

2 weeks

Depressed persons usually ____recover without therapy.

can

Symptoms of mania include _____.

euphoria, hyperactivity, and a wildly optimistic state

Bipolar disorder is less common among creative professionals who rely on ____ and ____ than among those who rely on ____ expression and vivid ____.

precision
logic
emotional
imagery

The commonality of depression suggests that its ____ must also be common.

causes

Compared with men, women are ____ vulnerable to major depression. In general, women are most vulnerable to disorders involving ____ states, such as _____.

more
internal
depression, anxiety, and inhibited sexual desire

Men's disorders tend to be more ____ and include ____.

external
alcohol abuse, antisocial conduct, and lack of impulse control

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