EXAM 3 - Cell Division & Cancer

30 terms by amandafein 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

The creation of genetically identical offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg, is called...
A) asexual reproduction.
B) spontaneous generation.
C) sexual reproduction.
D) regeneration.

A) asexual reproduction.

Asexual reproduction requires ________ individual(s).
A) 0
B) 3
C) 1
D) 2

C) 1

Which of the following statements regarding cell division is false?
A) Cell division is the basis of both sexual and asexual reproduction.
B) Cell division is necessary for development to occur.
C) Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes.
D) Cell division can reproduce an entire organism.

C) Cell division is common in eukaryotes but rare in prokaryotes.

Consider the process by which bacterial populations grow. What process performs a similar function in humans?
A) meiosis
B) binary fission
C) mitosis
D) transformation

C) mitosis

Which of the following statements correctly describes the timing of DNA synthesis?
A) DNA is synthesized continuously.
B) DNA is synthesized in G2 of interphase immediately preceding mitosis.
C) DNA is synthesized in the S phase of interphase.
D) DNA is synthesized only during mitosis.

C) DNA is synthesized in the S phase of interphase.

Eukaryotic cells spend most of their cell cycle in which phase?
A) prophase
B) metaphase
C) interphase
D) telophase

C) interphase

In the laboratory, cancer cells fail to show density-dependent inhibition of growth in cell culture. What is one explanation that could account for this?
A) Cancer cells continuously secrete growth factors into the cell culture medium.
B) Cancer cells have inactive receptors for growth factors.
C) Cancer cells are unable to attach to a surface and grow.
D) Cancer cells continue to die at a rate that is equal to their growth.

A) Cancer cells continuously secrete growth factors into the cell culture medium.

Which of the following must occur for a plant or animal to grow and develop normally?
A) Sufficient oxygen must be available to stimulate cell division.
B) The organism must receive a supply of the appropriate hormones from its parents.
C) The organism must be able to control the timing and rate of cell division in different parts of its body.
D) Sufficient light must be available to stimulate cell division.

C) The organism must be able to control the timing and rate of cell division in different parts of its body.

When animal cells are grown in a petri dish, they typically stop dividing once they have formed a single, unbroken layer on the bottom of the dish. This arrest of division is an example of
A) cell division repression.
B) growth factor desensitization.
C) density-dependent inhibition.
D) cell constraint.

C) density-dependent inhibition.

As a patch of scraped skin heals, the cells fill in the injured area but do not grow beyond that. This is an example of
A) growth factor inhibition.
B) anchorage independence.
C) density-independent inhibition.
D) density-dependent inhibition.

D) density-dependent inhibition.

When examining cells in the laboratory, you notice that a particular cell has half as much DNA as the surrounding cells. It appears that this cell's cell cycle halted at checkpoint _____.
A) M phase
B) G0
C) G2
D) G1

D) G1

Mature human nerve cells and muscle cells
A) become cancerous more easily than other cell types.
B) cease dividing after a predetermined number of cell generations.
C) are permanently in a state of nondivision.
D) continue to divide throughout their lifetime.

C) are permanently in a state of nondivision.

Which of the following statements regarding the cell-cycle control system is false?
A) The cell-cycle control system operates independently of the growth factors.
B) The cell-cycle control system receives messages from outside the cell that influence cell division.
C) The cell-cycle control system includes three key checkpoints to complete a cell cycle.
D) The cell-cycle control system triggers and controls major events in the cell cycle.

A) The cell-cycle control system operates independently of the growth factors.

You are asked to culture an unidentified sample of animal tissue. You notice that the cells seem to fail to exhibit density-dependent inhibition. The source of this tissue sample is most likely
A) the sperm-producing tissue of the testis.
B) a cancer.
C) skin.
D) a fetal liver.

B) a cancer.

A benign tumor differs from a malignant tumor in that a benign tumor
A) is cancerous.
B) spreads from the original site.
C) does not metastasize.
D) never causes health problems.

C) does not metastasize.

When forming buds, hydras _____.
A) divide by meiosis
B) allow their homologous chromosomes to cross over
C) differentiate into somatic cells
D) divide by mitosis

D) divide by mitosis

Which of the following statements regarding the function of mitosis is false?
A) Mitosis allows organisms to reproduce asexually.
B) Mitosis allows organisms to grow.
C) Mitosis allows organisms to repair tissues.
D) Mitosis allows organisms to generate genetic diversity

D) Mitosis allows organisms to generate genetic diversity

Baker's yeast is an organism with 32 chromosomes that can perform asexual or sexual reproduction and exist as both a diploid and haploid cell. After meiosis, how many chromosomes will be present in each cell?
A) 8
B) 64
C) 16
D) 32

C) 16

Which of the following statements regarding mitosis and meiosis is false?
A) Meiosis only occurs in the ovaries and testes.
B) All sexual life cycles involve an alternation of diploid and haploid stages.
C) A normal human zygote has 46 chromosomes.
D) Mitosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

D) Mitosis produces daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.

Which of the following statements regarding genetic diversity is false?
A) Genetic diversity is enhanced by random fertilization.
B) Genetic diversity is enhanced by independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I.
C) Genetic diversity is enhanced by crossing over during meiosis.
D) Genetic diversity is enhanced by mitosis

D) Genetic diversity is enhanced by mitosis

Without crossing over
A) meiosis could not produce haploid gametes.
B) cells could not complete meiosis.
C) genetic recombination could not occur.
D) only a small number of unique gametes could be produced by a single individual.

C) genetic recombination could not occur.

Although in humans there are 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes, only three different chromosomal trisomies are commonly seen in newborns. Of the remaining 19 autosomes, many trisomies have not been seen in newborns. Why not?
A) Trisomy for these autosomal chromosomes has no effect and therefore would never be noticed.
B) Trisomy for the other autosomal chromosomes is often lethal, and the affected embryos are miscarried.
C) Trisomy for these other autosomal chromosomes occurs so rarely that it has never been documented.
D) These autosomal chromosomes do not contain the same type of DNA or protein that makes up chromosomes susceptible to trisomy.

B) Trisomy for the other autosomal chromosomes is often lethal, and the affected embryos are miscarried.

Which of the following statements regarding Down syndrome is false?
A) People with Down syndrome usually have a shorter life span than normal.
B) Trisomy 21 is the cause of Down syndrome.
C) Down syndrome is the most common serious birth defect in the United States.
D) Down syndrome is least likely to be seen in the infants of mothers over 40.

D) Down syndrome is least likely to be seen in the infants of mothers over 40.

Nondisjunction occurs when
A) a portion of a chromosome breaks off and is lost.
B) an entire pair of chromosomes is lost during meiosis I.
C) members of a chromosome pair fail to separate.
D) two chromosomes fuse into one.

C) members of a chromosome pair fail to separate.

Trisomy for most autosomes is fatal, yet trisomy or even tetrasomy (four copies) of the X chromosome is not. What is the explanation for this difference?
A) The number of X chromosomes is always balanced by the number of Y chromosomes.
B) Only one copy of the X chromosome is active, regardless of the total number of X chromosomes.
C) The X chromosome does not carry any genes.
D) There is a mechanism to keep only two X chromosomes active, regardless of the total number.

B) Only one copy of the X chromosome is active, regardless of the total number of X chromosomes.

Which of the following statements about nondisjunction is false?
A) In general, a single Y chromosome is enough to produce "maleness."
B) In mammals, extra copies of the Y chromosome are typically inactivated.
C) Women with a single X chromosome have Turner syndrome and are sterile.
D) Nondisjunction in meiosis can affect autosomes and sex chromosomes.

B) In mammals, extra copies of the Y chromosome are typically inactivated.

You suspect that a serious developmental disorder is due to a chromosome abnormality and prepare a karyotype from an affected individual. In analyzing the karyotype, how could you distinguish trisomy from a chromosome structural defect such as a duplication?
A) In trisomy there would be one extra chromosome; in a duplication, one chromosome would have two copies of a portion of the chromosome.
B) The chromosome number in both cases would be normal, but in trisomy there would be three chromatids on one chromosome and in a duplication there would be two chromatids on one chromosome.
C) In both cases there would be an extra chromosome, but in trisomy there would be three chromatids on one chromosome and in a duplication there would be two chromatids on one chromosome.
D) The chromosome number in trisomy would be normal; in a duplication, there would be one more chromosome.

A) In trisomy there would be one extra chromosome; in a duplication, one chromosome would have two copies of a portion of the chromosome.

If a chromosome fragment breaks off and then reattaches to the original chromosome, but in the reverse direction, the resulting chromosomal abnormality is called a(n)
A) reciprocal translocation.
B) deletion.
C) translocation.
D) inversion.

D) inversion.

Which of the following variations of the sentence "Where is the cat" is most like a chromosomal deletion?
A) Where is cat?
B) Where is the the cat?
C) Where the is cat?
D) Where is cat the the cat?

A) Where is cat?

Cancer is not usually inherited because
A) people with cancer usually die before reproducing.
B) the cancerous cells usually interfere with the ability to produce gametes.
C) the chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined to somatic cells.
D) the causes of cancer are not usually genetic.

C) the chromosomal changes in cancer are usually confined to somatic cells.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set