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Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system, except

Answer- synthesis of vitamin c
-functions include
*maintenance of body temperature
*protection of underlying issues
*excretion of salts and wastes
*provision of sensation

The two components of the integumentary system are the

cutaneous membrane and accessory structures

The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are

keratinocytes

The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the

stratum corneum

Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called

stratum corneum

Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed

insensible

The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the

stratum spinosum

The layer of the skin the provides a barrier against bacteria as well as chemical and mechanical injuries is the

epidermis

Characteristics of the epidermis include

Answer- all the above
*flexible
*contains desmosomes
*serves as UV radiation protection
*multilayered

All of the following are true of epidermal ridges except that they

Answer-contain increased numbers of free nerve endings
What is true-
*interconnect with the dermal papillae
*cause ridge patterns on the surface skin
*produce patterns that are genetically determined
*extend to the dermis

________are cells in the epidermis that are part of the immune system

Dendritic cells

Water loss from insensible perspiration

is neglible

the epidermis of the skin is composed of which type of tissue

keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the

stratum germinativum

The protein that reduces water loss in the skin is

keratin

Thin-skin contains______layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains______layers.

4;5

While walking barefoot on the beach, Joe stepped on a thorn that penetrated through the sole of his foot to the dermis. How many layers of the epidermis did the thorn penetrate

5

The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are

carotene and melanin

An albino individual lacks the ability to produce

melanin

All of the following are true of the pigment melanin, except that it

Answer-decreases in concentration within cells during exposure to the sun
What is true-
*protects DNA front the damaging effects of UV radiation
*is produced by cells called melanocytes
*is usually some shade of brown or black
*is produced from the amino acid tryosine

Cyanosis signifies that a patient

has oxygen-starved skin

Jaundice is indicated by

a yellowish skin coloration

Exposure to ultraviolet light(sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of

melanin

The _____in keratinocytes protects the epidermis and the dermis from harmful effects of sunlight

melanin

Which of the following is not an effect of ultraviolet radiation

vitiligo

An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is

vitamin d

Types of skin cancers include

squamous cell carcinoma
malignant melanoma
basal cell carcinoma

Which of the following statements about rickets is not true

Answer-is usually genetic
What is true-
*prevented by sunlight
*leads to skeletal deformity
*prevented by vitamin D
*leads to weak bones

Children in northern regions experience months of inadequate sunlight exposure to the skin. To prevent possible abnormal bone development, what essential organic nutrient is necessary in the diet

cholecaciferol

Epidermal growth factor exerts which of theses effects not he epidermis

accelerates tissue repair
stimulates keratin synthesis
speeds up glandular function
promotes cell division

The layer of skin that contains the blood vessels and nerves that are closest to the surface of the skin is the _______layer

papillary

The layer of the skin that contains bundles of collagen and elastic fibers responsible for the strength of the skin is the _______layer.

reticular

The protein that permits stretching and recoiling of the skin is

elastin

Skin inflammation that primarily involves the papillary layer is termed

papillitis

A surgical incision parallel to the lines of cleavage

requires no sutures

While assessing a patient, you discover that after pinching the skin on the back of the hand, it remains peaked. This is a sign of

dehydration

Stretch marks occur when

the skin is so extensively stretched that its elastic limits are exceeded

From what structure does sensible perspiration occur

10- which is sweat gland

Which layer is the primary barrier against environmental hazards

1-epidermis

Which layer contains most of the accessory structures

3-Dermis

An intradermal injection is administered into which layer

dermis

Which tissue is located in the region labeled "2"

areolar connective tissue

All of the following are true of the subcutaneous layer, except

Answer-*is attached to the dermis by a basement membrane
What is true-
*permits independent movement of deeper structures
*is well supplied with nerves that pass into the skin
*contains many blood vessels
*contains large amounts of adipose tissue

Accessory structures of the skin include all of the following, except

epidermis

The layer of hard keratin that coats the hair is termed the

cuticle

Variations in hair color reflect differences in the pigment produced by

melanocytes

Lanugo is found

on a fetus

If the papilla of a hair follicle is destroyed

the hair matrix will lose its blood supply

Which statement about hairs is false

Answer- club hairs are ingrown hairs
what is true
*Terminal hairs are in the axilla
*A terminal hair can detach but remain in the hair follicle as a club hair
*Eyebrows are terminal hairs
*Vellus hairs are on the limbs of children until puberty

When the arrector pili muscles contract

hairs are erect

Each of the following statements concerning hair is true, except one

Answer-scalp hairs grow consistently throughout life.
What is true
*Terminal hairs are heavy and darkly pigmented
*The cortex of the hair is composed of hard keratin
*club hair is hair that has ceased growing
*medulla is the soft part of the hair

A common cause of dandruff is

inflammation around sebaceous glands

Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are____glands

sebaceous

The____ glands in the axilla become active at the time of puberty

apocrine sweat

sensible perspiration is produced by____glands

merocrine

Earwax is produced by ____glands

ceruminous

Merocrine sweat contains _____to protect against bacteria

dermicidin

The highest concentration of merocrine sweat glands is found

on the palms of the hands

Each of the following statements concerning sebaceous glands and sebum's true, except one

Answer- most sebaceous glands are coiled tubular glands.
What is true
-Most sebaceous glands open into hair follicles
-sebum functions to lubricate the hair and skin
-sebum can function as an antibiotic

____sweat glands are widely distributed across the body surface,____glands are located wherever hair follicles exist, and ____sweat glands are found only in a few areas

Merocrine;sebaceous;apocrine

Which of the following happens if he body temperature rises above normal

Blood flow to the skin increases

Merocrine sweat glands

secrete a watery fluid directly onto the surface of the skin

All of the following ae true of perspiration produced by merocrine sweat glands, except one

Answer-produces the body odor characteristic of "sweating"
What is true
*helps to prevent bacteria from colonizing the skin
*contains electrolytes and date products
*is more than 99% percent water
*helps cool the body when it evaporates

The nail body covers

nail bed

Nail production occurs at the nail

root

The cuticle around the nail is

eponychium

The stratum corneum just under the free edge of a nail is the

hyponychium

A child who skins his knee in a fall has

abrasion

In a penetrating wound, _____divide to produce mobile cells that repair the dermis

fibroblasts

The type of burn that may require a skin graft is a

third-degree burn

If a fair-skinned person is sunburned , why does his or her skin turn red

The blood flow to the skin increases?

Skin can regenerate effectively even after considerable damage has occurred because

Stem cells persist in both epithelial and connective tissue components of eh skin after injury

The following are stages in the regeneration of skin following an injury

blood clot/scab
cellular migration
epidermis covers granulation tissue
epidermis covers scar tissue

Scar tissue is the result of

large numbers of collagen fibers and relatively few blood vessels in the injured area

During repair of the integument, fibroblasts follow areas of new capillary growth and produce____tissue.

granulation

Treatment of full thickness burns includes which of the following

assisting tissue repair
increasing caloric intake
replacing fluids
preventing infection

Charlie is burned badly in and accident. His hair follicle can be removed front he skin with forceps easily. what type of burn does he have

third degree

A full thickness burn injury can life threatening. A physician treating a burn victim would likely order all of the following except

Answer-ice packs applied to burn area
What is true
*A high calorie diet
*skin grafts
*antibiotics
*IV fluids

The effects of aging on the skin include

a decline in the activity of sebaceous glands

Wrinkles in the elderly individuals are the result of

decreased thickness in the dermis

Why would an elderly person be more prone to skin infections than a younger person

The epidermis is thinner
Basal cell activity is reduced in the elderly
Skin repairs take longer in the elderly
There are fewer dendritic cells in the skin of the eldely

Accumulation of fluid within the epidermis or between the epidermis and the dermis are called

insensible

Rapid water loss from burned skin is an extreme form of _____perspiration

insensible

The pigment found in vegetables the can make the skin appear orange or yellow

carotene

Melanin is produced by melanocytes within the stratum

babsale

The skin appearance that results from dark hemoglobin is called

...

Four signs useful for determining if a suspicious mark on the skin is melanoma follow follow the ABCD mnemonic.

A-asymmetry
B-border
C-color
D-diameter

A deficiency disease that illustrates the effect of integumentary system function on the structure of the skeletal system____

rickets

The most dangerous type of skin cancer is termed

malignant melanomas

Vitamin D3 is important for proper____development

bone

Skin cancer that starts in the stratum germinative is called

basal cell carcinoma

A bruise turns black and blue because of the _____in the dermis

blood

The drug_____increases dermal blood flow and makes the skin red

...

Fine hairs"like velvet" that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called

vellus hairs

Coarse pigmented hairs are called

terminal hairs

The substance called sebum is commonly known as

oil

In the condition erythema the skin takes on a _____color

red

A thickened area of scar tissue that is covered by a shiny, smooth epidermal surface is called

keloid

A fibrin clot that is formed over a skin wound is called

scab

The combination of fibrin clot, fibroblasts, and extensive capillary network that is formed in injured skin is called

granulation tissue

If epithelial cell migration cannot cover a wound,______may be required

Skin grafts

A bacterial infection that is often fatal in burn patients is called

sepsis

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