State and federal legislative bodies enact ____ that specify appropriate punishments for each statutory offense or class of offense.
A(n) ____sentence has a fixed minimum and maximum term of incarceration, rather than a set period.
Truth-in-sentencing laws require offenders to serve a substantial portion of their prison sentence, usually ____ of it.
Presumptive sentences may be based on sentencing guidelines, which are developed by sentencing commissions comprised of:
both criminal justice professionals and private citizens
In ____, the legislature determines a sentence range for each crime that is usually based on the seriousness of the crime and the criminal history of the offender.
Your textbook names five major criticisms of determinate sentencing. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the criticisms?
It creates judicial disparity in sentencing
Which of the following is an effort to do something for victims and their survivors—to return them, as much as possible, to their previous state and to make them "whole" again?
Before the Supreme Court's 1991 decision, ____ were considered irrelevant and potentially inflammatory and were not allowed.
According to your textbook, restorative justice seeks four goals. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of restorative justice?
To punish the offender for the harm done
According to your text, one problem with restitution is that most offenders:
have neither the financial means nor the abilities to provide adequate restitution
Your text lists four examples of the claims that a convicted offender can make at allocution. Three are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these claims?
That his or her civil rights are being violated by the sentence
Nearly ____ of state trial court decisions are affirmed on appeal.
Before 1968, the only issues the Supreme Court considered in relation to capital punishment concerned:
the means of administering the death penalty
Between 1968 and 1972:
a series of lawsuits challenged various aspects of capital punishment
All but four of the capital offenses under federal law involve murder. Three of these are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
In July 2000, the president of the ABA called for a moratorium on executions for five reasons. Three are listed below. Which is NOT one of the reasons listed in your textbook?
In 2009, approximately what portion of prison releases were determined by a parole board decision?
forty four percent
From which of the following sources does the federal government's Crime Victims Fund receive its funding?
fines and penalties paid by federal criminal offenders
Which of the following is NOT a right granted to crime victims in at least some jurisdictions?
all of the above are rights
For which of the following uses do laws specify that restitution may NOT be court ordered?
it may be ordered for all of these uses
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court in 2002 rule that jurors and not judges must determine whether death is the appropriate penalty in a capital case.
Ring v. Arizona
Judges almost always impose the sentence agreed upon during plea negotiations because if they did not, plea bargaining would not work.
The practical effect of the Furman decision was that the Supreme Court voided the death penalty laws of some 35 states.
In an appellate review, the appellate court compares the sentence in the case it is reviewing with penalties imposed in similar cases in the state.
Death penalty support among the American public, at least according to the major opinion polls, remains relatively strong.
Before the 1600s, institutional confinement usually served functions other than punishment for criminal behavior. Six examples are listed in your textbook, and three of these are listed below. Which of the following is NOT one of these examples?
John Howard's 1777 book, The State of the Prisons in England and Wales, stated several opinions about how to improve prison conditions. Which of the following is NOT one of Howard's opinions, as discussed in your textbook?
Complete rehabilitation of prisoners is impossible
Most early women's prison employed ____, as distinguished from the ____ of men's prisons.
a family-style living plan; cell-block plan
Which of the following states is the first state to allow female prisoners to work on chain gangs?
At the beginning of 2011, the states and the federal government combined operated about _________ adult prisons?
When offenders are sentenced to the custody of the department of corrections in most states, they are transported initially to a:
Men's prisons are often distinguished from one another by:
In recent years, incarceration rates for females in the United States have ____ incarceration rates for males.
grown faster than
A(n) ____ is a very short-term (for instance, 24- to 48-hour) holding facility.
A ____ is a facility that holds convicted offenders and unconvicted persons for relatively short periods of up to one year.
Inmates who are vulnerable to assault by other inmates may be designated for:
Most institutions have elaborate____, in which staff learn from inmate informants about the presence of contraband, the potential for disruptions, and other threats to security.
Group counseling is more popular than individual counseling in institutional settings, primarily because:
it is more economical and there are large numbers of inmates who share similar backgrounds and problems
Rather than having inmates attend periodic group sessions (one or two hourly sessions per week), ____encompasses the total living environment of inmates so that the environment continually encourages positive behavioral change.
Which of the following states that prisoners should receive no service or program superior to the services and programs available to free citizens without charge?
The less-eligibility principle
Which of the following has NOT been found about private correctional facilities?
privatization can substantially increase legal liability costs of operating prisons and jails
Which of the following countries consistently has one of the highest incarceration rates in the world?
Which of the following is NOT a function of jails?
holding inmates sentenced to long terms
Which of the following is a reason for the problems that plague jails?
all of the above
Which of the following types of jails is built in a linear design, in which inmates live together in cells, dormitories, or "tanks," and guards at regular intervals walk up and down the corridors or "catwalks" and observe inmates.
In which of the following types of jails do correctional officers constantly supervise inmates from secure control booths that overlook inmate living areas?
In which of the following types of jails are there no physical barriers between correctional officers and inmates?
Which of the following has research shown to be an advantage of direct-supervision jails?
all of the above
The closest European forerunner of the modern U.S. prison was known as:
Which of the following was designed for younger, less hardened offenders, between 16 and 30 years of age?
A ____is an institutional setting in which people are cut off from the wider society and are expected to live according to institutional rules and procedures.
The ____ model holds that the inmate society is shaped by factors external to the prison environment—specifically, the pre-prison experiences and socialization patterns that inmates bring with them when they enter prison.
Instances of prison sex can be divided into three basic categories, which are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
Living in prison is fundamentally different from living in the free community in several ways, three of which are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
There are rarely opportunities for any level of educational achievement
Inmates who adopt the ____ lifestyle are primarily concerned with getting out of prison as soon as possible and avoiding hard time in the process.
Women's prisons are usually not characterized by the ____ found in men's institutions.
all of the above
A distinguishing feature of the inmate society in many women's prisons is the presence of:
Researchers have observed that the work of correctional officers is characterized by both:
boredom and stimulus overload
Until the middle of the 20th century, the courts followed a ____ philosophy toward prison matters.
Inmates skilled in legal matters are known as:
The Supreme Court has ruled that censorship in prisons is legal only if it furthers one of three substantial government interests. Which of the following is NOT one of these interests?
Totality-of-conditions rulings have been handed down against prison systems in three states. Which of the following is NOT one of those states?
A high percentage of lawsuits filed by inmates are judged:
frivolous and are therefore dismissed
The term parole can
a way of being released from prison before the entire sentence has been served
Mandatory release is similar to ____ in that people let out under either arrangement ordinarily receive a period of community supervision.
The results of research on recidivism have indicated that the factor most strongly related to the likelihood of re-arrest was:
prior arrest history
One study on recidivism demonstrated that the inmates who adjusted most successfully to prison ____ to life in the free community upon release.
had the most difficulty adjusting
Approximately what percent of all prison inmates will eventually be released from prison?
What is the cause of death for the vast majority of prison inmates who are not eventually released from prison?
Which of the following is NOT a value or norm of the convict code?
all of the above are values or norms of the convict code
Which of the following items most often assumes the symbolic value of money in the sub-rosa economy of the prison?
Several factors have rendered the current inmate society unstable. Five are listed in your textbook, and three are listed here. Which one does NOT belong?
Increased staff size and training
Ironically, the Eighth Amendment has done little to protect inmates from staff brutality because:
brutality is normally construed as a tort rather than a constitutional issue
The equal-protection clause under the ____ Amendment has led the Supreme Court to forbid racial discrimination and has led state courts to target gender discrimination.
Community corrections has traditionally emphasized:
Which of the following refers to organized and systematic efforts to remove people from the criminal justice process by placing them in programs that offer alternatives to the next, more restrictive stage of processing?
Which of the following is the most frequently used sentence in criminal justice?
Which of the following is conducted by the probation agency at the request of the judge, usually during the period between the finding (or plea) of guilt and sentencing?
The presentence investigation
Which of the following are imposed at the discretion of the judge and probation officials and are designed to address the offender's particular situation?
If a client has violated the conditions of probation, the probation agency may recommend:
Your textbook names three controversial issues related to probation. Which of the following is NOT one of these issues?
Which of the following is used with people leaving prison?
In ____, offenders are released from prison directly into the community under the supervision of the parole agency.
The first person or organization to implement parole in the United States was:
Your textbook names the four most important factors in determining whether to grant or deny parole. Which of the following is NOT one of these factors?
Ties to family and community
Currently, ____ have abolished early release by discretion of a parole board for all offenders.
16 states and the federal government
ISP usually lasts:
six months to two years
Home confinement programs did not gain wide popularity until ____ became widespread during the 1980s.
Two of the most critical issues surrounding halfway houses are:
community resistance and recidivism
At year-end 2007, which of the following types of probation accounted for the largest percentage of adults on probation?
Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of parole board members?
Which of the following states had the largest probation population at year-end 2007?
Which of the following states had the largest parole population at year-end 2007?
Which of the following factors accounts for the wide variations among states in parolee success rates?
all of the above
Which of the following has NOT generally been found in research on parole release?
state inmates released through mandatory parole almost always have a higher success rate than inmates released by a parole board
Which of the following has NOT generally been found in research on parole release?
younger parolees have the highest rates of successful parole completion (the younger the parolee the greater the chance of success)
Approximately what number of all adults under some type of correctional supervision in the U.S. are serving community sentences?
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court establish that parole revocation and, by implication, probation revocation is to be a two-stage process. In the first stage, there must be an informal, preliminary inquiry to establish probable cause that a violation has occurred. In the second stage (assuming that probable cause is established in the first stage), there must be a formal court hearing to determine if the violation warrants revocation?
Morrissey v. Brewer
Of all funds allocated to run corrections in the U.S., approximately what percent are spent on community corrections?