Hybrid DNA produced in the laboratory by joining pieces of DNA from different sources
Cell structure in which proteins are manufactured. Most cells contain thousands of these
Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid, the molecule that carries out DNA's instructions for making proteins. Bases include adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.
An enzyme that transcribes a DNA sequence, creating messenger RNA that travels to the ribosomes.
the first major step in gene expression - information coded in DNA is copied into a molecule of RNA.
second step of gene expression in which the instructions encoded in RNA are carried out by making a protein or starting or stopping protein synthesis
A cellular structure containing genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins. Humans have 23 pairs - one of each pair from the mother and the other from the father.
Having two copies of each chromosome.
Having one copy of each chromosome as in a sperm or an egg
The type of cell division that creates egg and sperm cells
a change in DNA sequence
a building block of DNA or RNA. It includes one base, one phosphate molecule, and one sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA, ribose in RNA)
all of an organisms genetic material