Psychology 41 Midterm

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Once the researcher has tested his/her hypothesis, the fourth step in the scientific process is to

draw conclusions.

According to Freud, the development of even young infants involves sexual pleasures

True

According to Erikson, an infant must resolve the crisis of

trust vs mistrust

In operational conditioning, reinforcements have what effect on an individual's behavior?

make the behavior more likely to reoccur.

The purpose of a survey is to allow a researcher to make generalizations about the larger population.

True

According to Piaget, there are four age-related periods of cognitive development, each involving a different type of thinking and behaving.

True

A sperm has_________as many chromosomes as a normal body cell.

half

Monozygotic twins are also known as

identical twins

An embryo cannot develop without at least one X chromosome.

True

The first two weeks of prenatal development are called the germinal period.

True

The average newborn triples his weight by:

1 year

Brain cells are called:

neurons

The frontal areas of the cortex:

The frontal areas of the cortex:

Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be:

put to sleep on their backs.

Binocular vision refers to the ability to:

focus on an object with both eyes.

According to Freud, preventing sucking or early weaning during infancy may have lasting effects on personality development later.

True

The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a person first:

gain awareness of other people

At 6 weeks, Jessica's most recently developed emotional reaction is likely to be:

a social smile.

According to cognitive theory, infants use their early relationships to develop a set of assumptions that become a frame of reference they may use later in life. Such a set of assumptions is called a:

working model.

Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:

compliant.

In developed nations, which of the following is most likely to be lacking in a child's diet?

calcium, iron, and zinc

Writing your name is a _____________, whereas kicking a ball is a(n)_______________.

fine motor skill; gross motor skill

The ability to control one's impulsiveness appears to be directly related to the development of the:

prefrontal cortex

The hippocampus is a structure in the brain that processes:

memory.

Whereas Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to:

social activities guided by others.

According to Erikson, which of the following aids a young child in demonstrating initiative?

a longer attention span resulting from neurological maturity

An illness or disorder of the mind is referred to as:

psychopathology.

Which type of aggression tends to be characteristic of 2-year-olds?

reactive

According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:

identifying with their father.

According to cognitive theory, society socializes children in regard to gender differences.

False

The ratio between a person's height and weight is expressed as:

BMI.

The ability to understand the connection between one fact and another, even though it is not stated, called:

transitive inference.

Extensive neural myelination allows:

automatization to improve.

John has the ability to talk informally with his friends and more formally to his teachers when called on in class. This is because John understands the:

pragmatics of his language.

A child's reaction time is determined by his or her level of muscular development.

False

The period of latency is a time of suppressed emotional drives and submerged unconscious conflicts.

True

Having an emotionally dysfunctional parent may not affect a resilient child if the other parent protects and nurtures the child.

True

Spreading a rumor about someone is a type of indirect bullying

True

The particular habits, styles, and values that reflect the rules and rituals that characterize children as distinct from adult society define:

the culture of children.

Girls who bully typically:

mock and ridicule their victim.

List in order, and explain each of the five basic steps of the scientific method.

1. State the problem
2. Gather info
3. Form a hypothesis
4. Experiment
5. Data
6. Conclusion

Define postpartum depression, and describe some of its causes. What might be done to successfully cope with it?

The sadness and inadequacy felt by some new mothers in the days and weeks after giving birth. Some causes of depression predate the pregnancy, others occur during the pregnancy, and still others arise from coping with a newborn who has health, feeding, or sleeping difficulties. Birth itself, with its accompanying anesthesia, changing hormones, and pain can precipitate depression. No matter what the cause, someone must help new parents adjust.

Compare and contrast the behaviorist and psychoanalytic perspectives on early childhood development of personality.

Psychoanalytic theory-Stresses that early childhood, including infancy, is critical; even if a person does not remember what happened, the early legacy lingers throughout life.
Behaviorism- Holds current conditioning is crucial; early habits and patterns can be unlearned, even reversed, if appropriate reinforcements and punishments are used.

Examine the physical growth patterns of children as they mature from age 2 to age 6. What changes occur? How do these changes support physical skill development?

Ages 2 through 6 are the early childhood years, or preschool years. Like infants and toddlers, preschoolers grow quickly—both physically and cognitively. A short chubby toddler who can barely talk suddenly becomes a taller, leaner child who talks incessantly. Especially evident during early childhood is the fact that development is truly integrated: The biological, psychological, and social changes occurring at this time (as well as throughout the rest of the life span) are interrelated.

List and describe in detail the three parenting styles described by Baumrind.

Authorian Parenting- An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards strict punishment of misconduct and little communication
Permissive parenting- An approach to rearing that characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
Authorian parenting- An approach to child rearing in which the parents sets limits and enforce rules but are flexible and listen to their children
Neglectful-unaware of anything thats going on with the child

List and describe the symptoms of autism

never talk, rarely smile, and play for hours with one object(such as a pen instead of a toy).

Analyze the roots of bullying behavior in children. What are possible causes? How does the behavior start? What circumstances could contribute to bullying?

Being mistreated at home
Getting bullies by a sibling
Abuse at home
with antisocial behavior verbal abuse

Advances in children's brain functioning during the school years influence school performance. Define and discuss the roles of selective attention and automatization in acquiring academic skills.

Selective attention is made possible at the age of 7 by increases in mylenation of axons and in the production of neurotransmitters. in classroom, selective attention allows children to listen take notes and ignore distractions.
Automatization- a process in which a sequence of thoughts and actions is repeated until it becomes automatic and routine. Like reading a book and studying.

Distinguish between the terms child abuse and child neglect.

Child abuse is deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well being
Child Neglect-Failure to meet a childs basic physical, educational, or emotional needs.

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