psychology 2: chapter 6

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erikson's stage associated with early childhood is?

initiative v.s. guilt

the great governer of initiative is?

conscience

children's initiative and enthusiasm may bring them_____ but also_____

rewards, guilt

what does guilt do to one's self esteem?

guilt lowers one's self esteem

in early childhood one begins to develop ...
a.____
b.____
c.____

a. self understanding
b.self esteem
c.self-conscious emotions and awareness

what is self understanding?

representation of self, the substance and content of self conceptions.

in early childhood, children often provide self-descriptions that involve?

body attributes, material possessions, and physical activities.

although young children mainly ddescribe themselve in terms of concrete observable features and activities, at age 4 to 5 start to use _____ and____ in their self descriptions

psychological trait and emotion terms

are young children's self descriptions...
a. negative
b.realisticly positive
c.unrealisticly positive

young childrens self descriptions are...
c. unrealisticly positive

And at age 4 to 5 children not only start to perceive others in terms of _______ traits. Thus, a 4-year-old might say,________

And at age 4 to 5 children not only start describing themselves in terms of psychological traits but also begin to perceive others in terms of psychological traits. Thus, a 4-year-old might say, "My teacher is nice."

It is important for children to develop an understanding that people don't always give _____ reports of their beliefs

It is important for children to develop an understanding that people don't always give ACCURATE reports of their beliefs

Another recent study found that at age 3 children _____ people who made a single error, but it wasn't until age ____ that, when deciding whom to trust, children took into account the relative _____ of errors informants made

Another recent study found that at age 3 children MISTRUSTED people who made a single error, but it wasn't until age (4) that, when deciding whom to trust, children took into account the relative FREQUENCY of errors informants made

Children also begin to develop an understanding for _____ _____. A recent study revealed that 3-year-olds, but not 2-year-olds, recognize when an adult is committed and when they themselves are committed to an activity that involves obligation to a partner

Children also begin to develop an understanding for joint commitments. A recent study revealed that 3-year-olds, but not 2-year-olds, recognize when an adult is committed and when they themselves are committed to an activity that involves obligation to a partner

what leading expert on children's socioemotional development, recently questioned why Piaget's concept of egocentrism has become ingrained in people's thinking about young children given the fact that the current research on social awareness in infancy and early childhood is dissonant with Piaget's egocentrism concept?

Ross Thompson

____, _____,_____, and _____ are examples of self-conscious emotions. These emotions do not appear to develop until ______ appears around 18 months of age. During the early childhood years, emotions such as ______ and _____ become more common.

Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are examples of self-conscious emotions. These emotions do not appear to develop until self-awareness appears around 18 months of age. During the early childhood years, emotions such as pride and guilt become more common.

A recent meta-analysis revealed that emotion knowledge was _____ related to 3- to 5-year-olds' social competence and _____ related to their internalizing.

A recent meta-analysis revealed that emotion knowledge (such as understanding emotional cues—for example, when a young child understands that a peer feels sad about being left out of a game) was positively related to 3- to 5-year-olds' social competence (such as off ering an empathic response to the child who is left out) and negatively related to their internalizing (high level of anxiety, for example) and externalizing problems

Between ages ___ and ____, children considerably increase the number of terms they use to describe emotions. During this time, they are also learning about the causes and consequences of feelings

Between ages 2 and 4, children considerably increase the number of terms they use to describe emotions. During this time, they are also learning about the causes and consequences of feelings

When they are ___ to ___ years old, children show an increased ability to reflect on emotions. They also begin to understand that the same event can elicit different feelings in different people. Moreover, they show growing awareness that they need to manage their emotions to meet social

When they are 4 to 5 years old, children show an increased ability to reflect on emotions. They also begin to understand that the same event can elicit different feelings in different people. Moreover, they show growing awareness that they need to manage their emotions to meet social

by age _ most children can accurately determine emotions that are produced by challenging circumstances and describe strategies they might call on to cope with everyday stress

by age 5 most children can accurately determine emotions that are produced by challenging circumstances and describe strategies they might call on to cope with everyday stress

Emotion-coaching parents monitor their children's ____, view their children's _____ emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in _____ emotions, and coach them in how to ____ ____ with emotions

Emotion-coaching parents monitor their children's emotions, view their children's negative emotions as opportunities for teaching, assist them in labeling emotions, and coach them in how to deal eff ectively with emotions

________ parents view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions

emotion-dismissing parents view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions

the ability to ____ _____ _____ is an important skill that benefi ts children in their relationships with peers

the ability to modulate one's emotions is an important skill that benefi ts children in their relationships with peers

A recent study revealed that 4-year-olds ________ and ______ for controlling their anger more than did 3-year-olds

A recent study revealed that 4-year-olds recognized and generated strategies for controlling their anger more than did 3-year-olds

___ ____ involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people

Moral development involves the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people

Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development provided by ______ _____ _____

Feelings of anxiety and guilt are central to the account of moral development provided by Freud's psychoanalytic theory

According to Freud, to reduce ____, avoid ____, and maintain ______, children identify with their parents, internalizing their standards of right and wrong, and in this way develop the superego, the moral element of the personality

According to Freud, to reduce anxiety, avoid punishment, and maintain parental affection, children identify with their parents, internalizing their standards of right and wrong, and in this way develop the superego, the moral element of the personality

what is responding to another person's feelings with an emotion that echoes those feelings

empathy

Infants have the capacity for some purely empathic responses, but empathy often requires the ability to discern another person's emotional states, or what is called ______ ______

Infants have the capacity for some purely empathic responses, but empathy often requires the ability to discern another person's emotional states, or what is called perspective taking

Piaget watched children play ____ to learn how they used and thought about the game's rules

Piaget watched children play marbles to learn how they used and thought about the game's rules

From ages __ to __, children display heteronomous morality, the first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory. Children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties, removed from the control of people

From ages 4 to 7, children display heteronomous morality, the first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory. Children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties, removed from the control of people

From ages ___to __, children are in a period of transition, showing some features of the first stage of moral reasoning and some of the second stage, autonomous morality

From ages 7 to 10, children are in a period of transition, showing some features of the fi rst stage of moral reasoning and some of the second stage, autonomous morality

From about age ___ and older, children show autonomous morality. They become aware that rules and laws are created by people, and in judging an action they consider the actor's intentions as well as its consequences

From about age 10 and older, children show autonomous morality. They become aware that rules and laws are created by people, and in judging an action they consider the actor's intentions as well as its consequences

Because young children are ____ ____, they judge the rightness or goodness of behavior by considering its consequences, not the intentions of the actor

Because young children are heteronomous moralists, they judge the rightness or goodness of behavior by considering its consequences, not the intentions of the actor

The _____ thinker also believes that rules are unchangeable and are handed down by all-powerful authorities. they also believe in immanent justice, the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately and that that if something unfortunate happens to someone, that person must have transgressed earlier.

The heteronomous thinker also believes that rules are unchangeable and are handed down by all-powerful authorities. they also believe in immanent justice, the concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately and that that if something unfortunate happens to someone, that person must have transgressed earlier

____ _____— accept change and recognize that rules are merely conventions, subject to change

moral autonomists— accept change and recognize that rules are merely conventions, subject to change

Older children, who are ___ ____, recognize that punishment occurs only if someone witnesses the wrongdoing and that, even then, punishment is not inevitable

Older children, who are moral autonomists, recognize that punishment occurs only if someone witnesses the wrongdoing and that, even then, punishment is not inevitable

In the peer group, where others have power and status similar to the child's, plans are negotiated and coordinated, and disagreements are reasoned about and eventually settled. Parent-child relations, in which parents have the power and children do not, are less likely to ____ moral reasoning, because rules are often handed down in an authoritarian manner

In the peer group, where others have power and status similar to the child's, plans are negotiated and coordinated, and disagreements are reasoned about and eventually settled. Parent-child relations, in which parents have the power and children do not, are less likely to advance moral reasoning, because rules are often handed down in an authoritarian manner

what is the first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people

heteronomous morality is The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people

The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences

autonomous morality The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences

The concept that, if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately

immanent justice The concept that, if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately

The sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old

gender identity- The sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old

Sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, and feel

gender roles, Sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, and feel

A theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women

social role theory, A theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women

When children are rewarded for behavior that is consistent with laws and social conventions, they are likely to ____ that behavior. When models who behave morally are provided, children are likely to ____ their actions. And when children are punished for immoral behavior, those behaviors are likely to be reduced or _____. However, because punishment may have adverse side eff ects, as discussed later in this chapter, it needs to be used ____ and ____

When children are rewarded for behavior that is consistent with laws and social conventions, they are likely to repeat that behavior. When models who behave morally are provided, children are likely to adopt their actions. And when children are punished for immoral behavior, those behaviors are likely to be reduced or eliminated. However, because punishment may have adverse side eff ects, as discussed later in this chapter, it needs to be used judiciously and cautiously

Many social scientists do not locate the cause of psychological gender differences in biological dispositions. Rather, they argue that these differences are due to ___ ____ . Their explanations include both social and cognitive theories

Many social scientists do not locate the cause of psychological gender diff erences in biological dispositions. Rather, they argue that these differences are due to social experiences (Best, 2010). Their explanations include both social and cognitive theories

Three main social theories of gender have been proposed: ___, ___, ____

social role theory, psychoanalytic theory, and social cognitive theory

theory that states that gender diff erences result from the contrasting roles of women and men

social role theory

psychoanalytic theory of gender stems from ___ view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent.
This is the process known as the ____ (for boys) or ___ (for girls) complex. At age 5 or 6, the child renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings

psychoanalytic theory of gender stems from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent.
This is the process known as the Oedipus (for boys) or Electra (for girls) complex. At age 5 or 6, the child renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings

____ ____ _____ of _____, children's gender development occurs through observation and imitation of what other people say and do, and through being rewarded and punished for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior

social cognitive theory of gender

Parental Influences - Parents influence their children's gender development by action and by example

research review provided these conclusions:

____ socialization strategies. In many cultures, mothers socialize their daughters to be more obedient and responsible than their sons. They also place more restrictions on their daughters' autonomy

_____socialization strategies. Fathers show more attention to their sons than to their daughters, engage in more activities with their sons, and put forth more eff ort to promote their sons' intellectual development

Parental Influences - Parents influence their children's gender development by action and by example

research review provided these conclusions:

Mothers' socialization strategies. In many cultures, mothers socialize their daughters to be more obedient and responsible than their sons. They also place more restrictions on their daughters' autonomy

Fathers' socialization strategies. Fathers show more attention to their sons than to their daughters, engage in more activities with their sons, and put forth more eff ort to promote their sons' intellectual development

____extensively reward and punish gender behavior.

peers

In fact, ___ become so important to gender development that the playground has been described as "gender school"

peers

A theory deriving from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, by approximately 5 or 6 years of age renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identifi es with the samesex parent, unconsciously adopting the same-sex parent's characteristics

psychoanalytic theory of gender

A theory that emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender- inappropriate behavior

social cognitive theory of gender

is it greater pressure for boys or girls to conform to a traditional role?

boys

____ ____ of ____ ____
Around age 3, children already show a preference to spend time with same-sex playmates. This preference increases until around age 12, and during the elementary school years children spend a large majority of their free time with children of their own sex

Gender composition of children's groups

____ ____
From about age 5, boys are more likely to associate together in larger clusters than girls are. Boys are also more likely to participate in organized group games than girls are.

Group size.
From about age 5, boys are more likely to associate together in larger clusters than girls are. Boys are also more likely to participate in organized group games than girls are.

Interaction in same-sex groups, are Boys or girls more likely to engage in rough-and-tumble play, competition, confl ict, ego displays, risk taking, and seeking dominance?

boys are more likely to engage in rough-and-tumble play, competition, confl ict, ego displays, risk taking, and seeking dominance than girls

Interaction in same-sex groups, are Boys or girls more likely to engage in "collaborative discourse," in which they talk and act in a more reciprocal manner?

girls are more likely to engage in "collaborative discourse," in which they talk and act in a more reciprocal manner

What influential cognitive theory states that gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture

Gender schema theory

what is gender schema?

organizes the world in terms of female and maleorganizes the world in terms of female and male

what are Baumrind's 4 Parenting Styles ?

authoitarian, authoratative, neglectful, and indulgent

which parenting style is a restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions, to respect work and effort, where the parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange, and is associated with children's social incompetence?

authoritarian parenting

A parenting style in which parents encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the child. ________ parenting is associated with children's social competence

authoritative parenting

A style of parenting in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child's life; it is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control

neglectful parenting

A style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. ____ parenting is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control

indulgent parenting

Children of ___ parents are often unhappy, fearful and anxious about comparing themselves with others; they also fail to initiate activity, and have weak communication skills

Authoritarian Parenting

Children of ___ parents are often cheerful, self controlled and self reliant, and achivement oriented; they tend to maintain friendly relations with peers, cooperate with adults, and cope well with stress

Authoritative Parenting

Children of ___ parents are often tend to be socially incompetent, have poor self control and dont handle independence well. They frequently have low self esteem, are imature, and may be alientated from the family. In adolesence they may show paterns of truancy and delinquency.

Neglectful Parenting

Children of ___ parents are rarely learn respect for others and have difficulty controlling their behavior. They might be domineering, egocentric, non compliant and have unsatisfactory peer relations.

Indulgent Parenting

_______ _________ associated with higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression by the children. They also found that it is linked to lower levels of moral internalization and mental health

Corporal Punishment

Four reasons why parents should avoid using corporal punishment:

a.)
b.)
c.)
d.)

a.) Children may imitate this behavior
b.) Punishment can instill fear, rage or avoidance
c.) Punishment tells children what not to do, rather than what to do
d.) Parents might unintentionally become aroused that when they are punishing the child that they become abusive.

Most child psychologists recommend handling this behavior by:

a.)
b.)
c.)
d.)

a.) Reasoning with the child,
b.) explaning the conseqences of the child's actions for others
c.) Time Out
d.) removing a child from a setting that offers positive reenforcement, and can also be effective.

What psychologist created Authoritative, Authoritative, Neglectful and Indulgent parenting styles?

Diana Daumrind

The four main types of child maltreatment are:

a.)
b.)
c.)
d.)

a.) Physical Abust
b.) Child Neglect
c.) Sexual Abuse
d.) Emotional Abuse

Which form of abuse is charactized by the infliction of physical injury as a result of punching, beating, kicking, biting, burning, shaking or otherwise harming of a child? The parent or other person may not intend to hurt the child; The injury may result from excessive phsyical punishment

Physical Abuse

Which form of abuse is characterized by failure to provide for the child's basic needs. It can be physical (abandonment), educational (allowing chronic truancy), emotional (marked inattention to the childs needs). It is by far the most common form of child maltreatment. In every country where relevant it occurs up to three times more often as any other abuse.

Child Neglect

Which form of abuse includes fondling of genitals, intercourse, incest, rape, sodomy, exhibitionism and commercial exploitation through prostitution or production of pornographic materials

Sexual Abuse

Which form of abuse includes acts or omissions by parents or other care givers that have cause or could cause serious behavioral, cognitive problems.

Emotional Abuse

Which abuse is almost always present when other forms of abuse are identified?

Emotional Abuse

True or False: Any form of child maltreatment may be found separately but also may occur in combinations and often do

True

The consequences of emotional abuse often results in ___________

Depression

Two to Four year old siblings in each other's presence have a conflict once every 10 mintues on average. At what age does this rate decline?

5-7 years of age

What do parents when they encounter siblings having a verbal or physical altercation?

a.)
b.)
c.)

a.) Intervene and try to help them resolve the conflict
b.) admonish or threaten them
c.) do nothing at all

From ages 2 to 5, what is the most frequent parental reaction to when two siblings have an altercation?

Do nothing at all

Three important characteristics of sibling relationships are:

a.)
b.)
c.)

a.) The emotional quality of the relationship - siblings often express intensive + & - emotions towards each other. Many children and adolescents have mixed feelings towards their siblings.

b.) The familiarity and intimacy of the relationship - Siblings typically know each other very well and this intimacy suggests that they can either provide, support or tease and undermine each other, depending on the situation

c.) The variation in sibling relationships some siblings describe their relationships more positively than others do. Thus, there is considerable variation in sibling relationships.

True or False: What matters for children's development is the nature of the parent's work rather than whether one or both parents works outside the home.

True

____ % of Children born to marry parents in the US will experience their parent's divorce

40%

Academic problems: acting out, delinquency, anxiety, depression, dropping out of school, being sexually active early, taking drugs, having low self esteem and being less competent in relationships are consequences of __________

Divorce

Can the consequences of divorce be a temporary condition and resolve themselves when the family and parents resolve or become more stable?

Yes

Are children better adjusted in intact, never divorced families than in divorced families?

No, children from divorced families show poorer adjustment than their counter parts in never divorced families.

Researchers have found ________ differences between children growing up with lesbian mothers or gay fathers on the one hand, and children growing up with heterosexual parents on the other

Researchers have found FEW differences between children growing up with lesbian mothers or gay fathers on the one hand, and children growing up with heterosexual parents on the other

SES

Socioeconomic Status

___________ Parents that are:

a.) are more concerned that their children conform to society's expectations
b.) create a home atmosphere in which it is clear that parents have authority over children
c.) are more likely to use physical punishment
d.) are more directive and less conversational with their children

Lower-SES Parents
(Lower Socioeconomic Status Parents)

____________ Parents that are:

a.) are more concerned with developing children's initiative and delay for gratification
b.) create a home atmosphere where children are more nearly equal participants and in which rules are discussed as opposed to being laid down in authoritarian manner.
c.) are less likely to use physical punishment
d.) are less directive and more conversational with their children

Higher-SES Parents
(Higher Socioeconomic Status Parents)

Belief that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences

autonomous morality

Sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by age 3 years.

gender identity

Set of expectations that prescribes how females and males should think, act, and feel.

gender role

Belief that justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.

heteronomous morality

Style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them.

indulgent parenting

Development that involves thoughts, feelings, and actions regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people.

moral development

Style of parenting in which parents are uninvolved in the child's life

neglectful parenting

Play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sport

practice play

Play that occurs when the child transforms the physical environment into representative objects

pretense/symbolic play

Child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of self-conceptions.

self-understanding

A restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and to respect work and effort. The authoritarian parent places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange. Authoritarian parenting is associated with children's social incompetence

authoritarian parenting

A parenting style in which parents encourage their children to be independent but still place limits and controls on their actions. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant toward the child. Authoritative parenting is associated with children's social competence.

authoritative parenting

The second stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, displayed by older children (about 10 years of age and older). The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences

autonomous morality

Play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas. Constructive play occurs when children engage in self-regulated creation or construction of a product or a problem solution

constructive play

Activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and often competition with one or more individuals.

games

The sense of being male or female, which most children acquire by the time they are 3 years old

gender identity

Sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, and feel.

gender roles

The theory that gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture

gender schema theory

The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people

heteronomous morality

The concept that, if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately

immanent justice

A style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children but place few demands or controls on them. Indulgent parenting is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control

indulgent parenting

Development that involves thoughts, feelings, and actions regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people

moral development

A style of parenting in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child's life; it is associated with children's social incompetence, especially a lack of self-contro

neglectful parenting

Play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports.

practice play

play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol.

pretense/symbolic play

A theory deriving from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, by approximately 5 or 6 years of age renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identifies with the same-sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same-sex parent's characteristics

psychoanalytic theory of gender

The child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions

self-understanding

Behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemes.

sensorimotor play

A theory that emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavio

social cognitive theory of gender

Play that involves social interactions with peers

social play

A theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women

social role theory

What is Erikson's stage of psychosocial development in early childhood?
A) industry versus inferiority
B) initiative versus guilt
C) identity versus identity confusion
D) intimacy versus isolation

B) initiative versus guilt

What type of self-descriptions do children typically provide in early childhood?
A) body attributes
B) material possessions
C) physical activities
D) all of these

D) all of these

In order to feel __________ emotions, children must be able to refer to themselves and be aware of themselves as distinct from others.
A) reflective
B) self-conscious
C) autonomous
D) symbolic

B) self-conscious

__________ is Piaget's first stage of moral development in which rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world.
A) Empathy
B) Imminent justice
C) Heteronomous morality
D) Autonomous morality

C) Heteronomous morality

__________ is a set of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think, act, and feel.
A) Gender
B) Gender role
C) Gender identity
D) Sex

B) Gender role

Which statement best describes the explanation given by the gender schema theory for gender development?
A) An individual's attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to cultural schemas that set out gender-based standards and stereotypes.
B) Children's gender typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender, at which point they organize their worlds on the basis of gender.
C) Children learn expected gender behaviors through rewards and punishments, as well as through observation and imitation of models.
D) Identification with the same-sex parent, as well as incorporation of gender behavior similar to that expressed by the parent, results after resolution of the Oedipal conflict.

A) An individual's attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to conform to cultural schemas that set out gender-based standards and stereotypes.

__________ parenting involves a restrictive, punitive style in which parents expect children to obey their rules without many questions.
A) Indulgent
B) Neglectful
C) Authoritative
D) Authoritarian

D) Authoritarian

Diana Baumrind's research suggests that parenting which is __________ and __________ leads to the best outcomes for children.
A) accepting; demanding
B) accepting; undemanding
C) rejecting; demanding
D) rejecting; undemanding

A) accepting; demanding

Regarding child maltreatment, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) About one-third of parents who were abused themselves when young abuse their own children.
B) Child abuse does not place the child at risk for a number of different developmental problems.
C) The majority of maltreated children suffer life-threatening and/or disabling injuries.
D) Parents who abuse their children rarely come from families where physical punishment was used

A) About one-third of parents who were abused themselves when young abuse their own children

Which of the following statements concerning siblings is INCORRECT?
A) During the preschool years, siblings in the presence of each other have a conflict approximately every 10 minutes.
B) Many children have mixed feelings toward their siblings.
C) To promote optimal sibling relationships, parents should avoid intervening and let siblings resolve conflicts on their own.
D) The intimacy between siblings can provide support or can be used to tease and undermine each other.

C) To promote optimal sibling relationships, parents should avoid intervening and let siblings resolve conflicts on their own.

Regarding the changing family, which of these statements is TRUE?
A) A common experience of working parents is not feeling guilty about being away from their children.
B) There is consensus among psychologists that children from divorced families show adjustment problems to a greater extent than do children from nondivorced families.
C) Research suggests that there are long-term negative effects on children when their mothers work outside the home.
D) Disengagement from the family is higher among girls than boys in divorced families

B) There is consensus among psychologists that children from divorced families show adjustment problems to a greater extent than do children from nondivorced families

Regarding cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic variation in families, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) The most common parenting style around the world is authoritarian.
B) African American and Latino children are more likely than White American children are to live in small families.
C) High-income families use discipline that emphasizes externalization, whereas low-income families emphasize internalization.
D) African American and Latino children are more likely than White American children are to live in extended families.

D) African American and Latino children are more likely than White American children are to live in extended families.

Peers are important in normal social development because __________.
A) they serve as powerful socialization agents
B) those children who are accepted by their peers are likely to suffer fewer developmental problems
C) they provide a source of information and comparison about the world outside the family
D) all of thes

D) all of thes

Regarding play, which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Play is not essential to a young child's health.
B) Play therapy is not successful in analyzing or helping with coping a child's conflicts.
C) Vygotsky deemphasized the role of play in cognitive development, whereas Piaget emphasized it.
D) Play is defined as a pleasurable activity that is engaged in for its own sake.

D) Play is defined as a pleasurable activity that is engaged in for its own sake.

How does play advance a child's cognitive development?
A) Play allows children to practice their competencies and acquired skills in a relaxed, pleasurable way.
B) Play provides a systematic means of imitation and correction for adult activities.
C) Play encourages ongoing peer negotiation and socialization through interdependent activities.
D) all of these

A) Play allows children to practice their competencies and acquired skills in a relaxed, pleasurable way.

In what type of play does a child increasingly transform their physical environment into a symbol?
A) practice
B) onlooker
C) pretense/symbolic
D) cooperative

C) pretense/symbolic

____ play involves the repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned.
A) Sensorimotor
B) Practice
C) Symbolic
D) Constructive

B) Practice

The highest incidence of game playing occurs __________.
A) in the preschool years
B) between ages 10 and 12
C) between ages 12 and 15
D) at no particular age; there are no age differences in the playing of games

B) between ages 10 and 12

Regarding children and television, which of the following statement is TRUE?
A) Television violence can induce aggression in children.
B) Prosocial behaviors on television are associated with increased negative behavior in children.
C) Children watch only moderate amounts of television.
D) Television viewing is positively related to children's creativity skills.

A) Television violence can induce aggression in children.

In which of the following developed countries do young children watch the most television?
A) United States.
B) Switzerland.
C) Spain.
D) Canada

A) United States.

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