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key terms from chapters 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, and 17.

stage fright

anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience

adrenaline

a hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress

positive nervousness

controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for his or her presentation

visualization

mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation

critical thinking

focused, organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion

speaker

the person who is presenting an oral message to a listener

message

whatever a speaker communicates to someone else

channel

the means by whcih a message is communicated

listener

the person who receives the speaker's message

frame of reference

the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes; no two people can have exactly the same

feedback

the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker

interference

anything that impedes the communication of a message; can be external or internal to listeners

situation

the time and place in which speech communication occurs

ethnocentrism

the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures

ethics

the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs

ethical decisions

involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines

name-calling

the use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups

Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution

plagiarism

presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own

global plagiarism

stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own

patchwork plagiarism

stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own

paraphrase

to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words

strategic organization

putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience

main points

the major developed in the body of a speech; usually 2-5

chronological order

a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern

spatial order

a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern

causal order

a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship

problem-solution order

a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem

topical order

a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics

supporting materials

the materials used to support a speaker's ideas; examples, statistics, testimony

connective

a word or phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them

transition

a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another

internal preview

a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next

internal summary

a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points

rhetorical question

a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud

credibility

the audiences' perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic

goodwill

the audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind

preview statement

a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body

crescendo ending

a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity

dissolve ending

a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement

preparation outline

a detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech

visual framework

the pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas

bibliography

a list of all the sources used in preparing a speech

speaking outline

a brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech

delivery cues

directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how he or she wants to deliver key parts of the speech

speech of introduction

a speech that introduces the main speaker to the audience

speech of presentation

a speech that presents someone a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition

acceptance speech

a speech that gives thanks for a gift, an award, or some other form of public recognition

commemorative speech

a speech that pays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institution, or an idea

hearing

vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain

listening

paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear

appreciative listening

listening for pleasure or enjoyment

emphatic listening

listening to provide emotional support for a speaker

comprehensive listening

listening to understand the message of a speaker

critical listening

listening to evaluate a message for purpose of accepting or rejecting it

spare "brain time"

the difference between the rate at which most people talk (120-150 wpm) and the rate of words that the brain can process (400-800 wpm)

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