Chapter 7:Control of Microbial Growth

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A chemical that reduces spoilage in fruit by destroying fungi, but does not appear to affect other microbes, would be called a __________.

A. fungicidal agent
B. fungistatic agent
C. sterilant
D. bactericidal agent

fungicidal agent

What is the best definition of sterilization?

A. removal of unwanted microorganisms
B. removal of viruses
C. elimination of bacteria
D. elimination of all microorganisms

elimination of all microorganisms

Which of the following correctly describes antisepsis?

A. destruction of vegetative microorganisms on inanimate surfaces
B. removal of vegetative microorganisms from living tissue
C. reduction of microbial cells on eating or drinking utensils
D. destruction of all organisms on any surface

removal of vegetative microorganisms from living tissue

Which of the following treatments achieves sterilization?

A. pasteurization
B. freezing
C. bringing water to a boil
D. autoclaving

autoclaving

Autoclaving destroys all living organisms, spores, and endospores, thereby sterilizing heat-stable items

Which one of these halogen compounds would be considered an antiseptic?

A. hypochlorous acid
B. calcium hypochlorite
C. chlorine dioxide
D. chlorine gas

chlorine dioxide

Which one of these chemical treatments kills cells by causing cross-linking of nucleic acids and proteins and inhibits vital cellular functions?

A. alcohol
B. ethylene oxide
C. heavy metals
D. soaps and detergents

ethylene oxide

For control of microbial growth on a surface, which of these conditions is LEAST likely to interfere with the effectiveness of an antiseptic or disinfectant?

A. presence of organic matter
B. high numbers of microbes
C. presence of biofilms
D. warm environmental conditions

warm environmental conditions

Which of the following are NOT typically destroyed by antimicrobial agents?

A. nuclei
B. proteins
C. nucleic acids
D. plasma membranes

nuclei

Bacteria do not contain nuclei, and since most disinfectants target bacteria, nuclei are not a typical target

Which one of the following physical methods of microbial control is bactericidal?

A. refrigeration
B. deep-freezing
C. desiccation
D. incineration

incineration

Which one of the following substances is effective against bacterial endospores?

A. bisphenols
B. quaternary compounds
C. mercury
D. chlorine

chlorine

A nurse is degerming a patient's arm before giving a vaccination. Which of these concentrations of alcohol is most effective?

A. 100%
B. 75%
C. 50%
D. 25%

75%

Alcohols work by denaturing proteins, and this process requires water. Generally, the most effective alcohol concentration is 70%.

Which of these microbes is the most difficult to destroy using either chemical or physical methods?

A. prions
B. HIV
C. MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
D. bacterial endospores

prions

Prions are the most difficult infectious particles to destroy. Currently, a combination of very high temperature and sodium hydroxide is used

Which of these chemicals inhibits an enzyme required for synthesis of membrane lipids?

A. chlorine
B. hydrogen peroxide
C. ozone
D. triclosan

triclosan

Which one of these products is most useful for disinfecting medical instruments?

A. iodine
B. glutaraldehyde
C. alcohols
D. soap and detergents

glutaraldehyde

What is the typical mechanism of action for chemical food preservatives?

A. oxidation
B. surface-active agents for removal of microbes
C. metabolic inhibition
D. disruption of plasma membranes

metabolic inhibition

Recently, silver has been considered in new applications for microbial control, such as impregnating surgical dressings and infusing food containers with silver. These new applications are important because silver is__________.

A. useful as a surface-active agent
B. effective in dissolving lipids in the plasma membrane
C. oligodynamic and unaffected by antimicrobial resistance
D. effective as an oxidizing agent

oligodynamic and unaffected by antimicrobial resistance

Disinfection methods have NOT completely solved the problem of destroying which of the following?

A. prions
B. endospores
C. protozoan cysts
D. enveloped viruses

prions

Prions are especially difficult to destroy. Incineration has been used for infected organisms. but effective treatment for equipment is still being determined. Even autoclaving requires the addition of sodium hydroxide.

A nurse is working in southeast Asia, where the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is very high. Why is it necessary to select a specific method of disinfection for this organism ?

A. The presence of a capsule makes this organism more resistant to disinfectants.
B. Bacterial endospores made by this organism are resistant to disinfectants.
C. The presence of an envelope makes this organism relatively resistant to disinfectants.
D. The waxy, lipid-rich components of the cell wall make this organism relatively resistant to disinfectants.

The waxy, lipid-rich components of the cell wall make this organism relatively resistant to disinfectants

While waiting for your meal at a restaurant, you read the information on the creamer containers at your table and notice that they do not need to be refrigerated. You are surprised, because dairy products typically must be kept cold to prevent spoilage. How were these products treated to eliminate microbial growth and prevent spoilage?

A. UHT treatment
B. chemical preservatives
C. gamma irradiation
D. pasteurization

UHT treatment

Ultra-high-temperature (UHT) is a treatment that essentially sterilizes the product

True/False

Most viruses are highly resistant to disinfectants and antiseptics

False

True/False

The presence of organic matter, such as blood or saliva, may impair the action of antimicrobial chemicals

True

True/False

All bacteria die at once when they are exposed to heat or chemical treatment

False

True/False

Times required for sterilization in an autoclave are shorter than those required in a dry oven because moist heat penetrates biological specimens more effectively than does dry heat.

True

True/False

Ethylene oxide gas is used to sterilize medical equipment that might be damaged by exposure to the heat of autoclaving

True

True/False

UV radiation and x-ray radiation are similar in that they damage DNA and have a high penetrating power

False

True/False

Iodine is one of the least effective antimicrobial chemicals, effective only against certain very sensitive strains of bacteria.

False

True/False

Soap is ineffective in killing bacteria. Therefore, hand washing is a rather ineffective measure in preventing disease transmission.

False

True/False

Ionizing radiation can be used to sterilize some foods such as spices, meat, and fruits and vegetables.

True

Sterilization is the ________.

A. destruction of all life-forms
B. destruction of all forms of microbial life except endospores
C. effective removal of all microbes on a surface
D. control of all microbial growth
E. same as sanitization

destruction of all life-forms

An antiseptic is used to remove microbes from ________.

A. restaurant glassware
B. food preparation areas
C. toilet surfaces
D. skin, before an injection
E. foods, before canning them

skin, before an injection

Which of the following infectious agents challenges current sterilization strategies that have been accepted and in use for decades?

A. endospores
B. mycobacteria
C. HIV
D. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
E. prions

prions

Some antimicrobial treatments kill microbes; some inhibit growth. Which term refers to an agent that inhibits bacterial growth?

A. germicidal
B. bacteriostatic
C. homeostatic
D. fungicidal
E. bacteriocidal

bacteriostatic

Which of the following is not a major target for action of antimicrobials?

A. proteins
B. nucleic acids
C. enzymes
D. cell membranes
E. flagella

flagella

Which of these is not a characteristic of the autoclave?

A. the use of moist heat
B. the requirement for long (hours) exposure times
C. the ability to sterilize solutions with endospores
D. the use of high temperatures
E. the use of high pressures

the requirement for long (hours) exposure times

Pasteurized milk in an unopened container spoils in the refrigerator. A sample reveals the presence of microorganisms. The most likely explanation is ________.

A. the microbes that survived pasteurization were able to grow at 4°C.
B. the microbes are pathogens
C. the pasteurization process was ineffective
D. a leak in the milk carton allowed microbes to enter
E. pasteurization-resistant mutants developed after pasteurization

the microbes that survived pasteurization were able to grow at 4°C.

Pasteurization was first used by Pasteur to control spoilage of ________.

A. milk
B. yogurt
C. wine
D. cheese
E. canned foods

wine

You are preparing a medium for growing fastidious bacteria and must add several heat-labile solutions of growth factors. Which of the following is an appropriate strategy for preparing and sterilizing this medium?

A. Prepare and autoclave the medium before adding the growth factors. After the medium has cooled, filter sterilize and aseptically add the growth factors.
B. Use UV radiation to sterilize this medium.
C. Use dry heat to sterilize the medium.
D. Prepare the medium, add the growth factors, and autoclave.
E. Pasteurize the medium.

Prepare and autoclave the medium before adding the growth factors. After the medium has cooled, filter sterilize and aseptically add the growth factors.

Which of the following is least likely to be damaged by exposure to gamma radiation?

A. protozoa
B. prions
C. bacteria
D. fungi
E. viruses

prions

Packages of milk and coffee creamers may be stored without refrigeration if they have been sterilized by ________.

A. boiling
B. ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment
C. autoclaving
D. treatment with phenol
E. high-temperature short-time (HTST) pasteurization

ultra-high-temperature (UHT) treatment

All of the following methods are used for food preservation except ________.

A. dessication
B. osmotic pressure
C. direct flaming
D. deep freezing
E. commercial canning

direct flaming

Some microbes are very resistant to antimicrobial chemicals. Which of the following would be the easiest to kill?

A. Mycobacterium tuberculosis
B. E. coli.
C. cysts of protozoa
D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
E. Clostridium endospores

E. coli

Which type of radiation is least effective in killing microbes?

A. gamma rays
B. microwaves
C. x-rays
D. high-energy electron beams
E. ultraviolet rays

microwaves

Alcohol is most effective when used as a ________ solution.

A. 95%
B. 100%
C. 60%
D. 70%
E. 25%

70%

All of the following are examples of microbial control using heavy metals except ________.

A. mouthwash solution containing zinc chloride.
B. burn treatment using silver-sulfadiazine ointment
C. algae control in swimming pools using copper sulfate
D. benzoyl peroxide used for acne treatment
E. antiseptic solution containing mercurochrome

benzoyl peroxide used for acne treatment

________ is a compound found in antimicrobial soaps that targets gram-positive bacteria.

A. Sodium nitrate
B. Mercuric chloride
C. Formaldehyde
D. Triclosan
E. Hydrogen peroxide

Triclosan

The following may be listed on the ingredients of your favorite snack food. Which of these products is not antimicrobial?

A. sodium benzoate
B. sorbic acid
C. xanthan
D. potassium sorbate
E. calcium propionate

xanthan

The decimal reduction time is the time required to kill __________ percent of a bacterial population

90%

Moist heat kills microbes by __________ of cellular components

denaturation

__________ is a common household disinfectant that has been used to disinfectant everything from dairies to drinking water.

bleach

Oxidizing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, are useful for irrigating deep wounds where released oxygen will inhibit the growth of __________.

anaerobic bacteria

__________ bacteria may survive pasteurization

Heat resistant

__________ ammonium compounds are less effective against gram-negative bacteria and more effective against gram-positive bacteria.

Quaternary

What is removal of microbes from skin by mechanical cleansing or by an antiseptic called?

A) sanitization
B) degerming

degerming

Degerming removes microbes from the skin, such as when an alcohol swab is used prior to an injection.

Destroying all forms of microbial life is known as

A) disinfection
B) sterilization

sterilization

Sterilization is the destruction of all forms of microbial life

The chemical disinfection of living tissue is known as

A) antisepsis
B) degerming

antisepsis

Antisepsis is the chemical disinfection of living tissues

When iodine is combined with an organic molecule, it is called

A) an iodophor
B) tincture

iodophor

When iodine is combined with an organic molecule, it is called an iodophor.

What group of chemicals does triclosan fall into?

A) a halogen
B) a bisphenol

bisphenol

Triclosan is a bisphenol found in many antimicrobial products, including antibacterial soaps

Which method achieves sterilization?

A) pasteurization
B) the autoclave

autoclave

The autoclave uses heat under pressure to allow temperatures above the boiling point of water to be reached.

Which type of treatment is it when a restaurant washes its eating utensils?

A) sanitization
B) degerming

sanitization

Sanitization lowers the microbial count to safe public health levels

Which of the following does not kill endospores?

A) autoclaving
B) pasteurization

pasteurization

Pasteurization does not kill endospores

What does UV radiation damage in a cell?

A) proteins
B) the DNA

the DNA

What would be an appropriate use of ultra-high-temperature treatment?

A) sterilizing rubber tubing
B) sterilizing coffee creamers.

sterilizing coffee creamers

For which of the following would it be appropriate to use high-energy electron beams as a means to control microbial growth?

A) to sterilize disposable dental supplies
B) to disinfect the air going into a nursery

to sterilize disposable dental supplies

How does alcohol kill bacteria?

A) by denaturing proteins
B) by inhibiting DNA synthesis

by denaturing proteins

True/False

Household bleach contains chlorhexidine as the active ingredient

false

What is the main effect of refrigeration on microbes?

A) kills microbes
B) slows microbial growth

slows microbial growth

When would it be appropriate to use glutaraldehyde?

A) when embalming corpses
B) when disinfecting water for swimming pools

when embalming corpses

True/False

The most commonly used iodophor is Betadine

true

Which method of control is it when we use concentrated salt solutions to cure meats?

A) osmotic pressure
B) high pressure

osmotic pressure

To which category do iodine and chlorine belong?

A) biguanide
B) halogen

halogen

By definition, a tincture contains alcohol. Why would a tincture of an antiseptic be more effective than an aqueous solution?

A. Alcohol contributes to the effectiveness of an antiseptic because it denatures proteins.
B. Alcohol contributes to the effectiveness of an antiseptic because it dissolves lipids.
C. Answers A and B are both correct.
D. Neither answer A nor B is correct

Answers A and B are both correct

Why would filter sterilization be used rather than heat, such as autoclaving?

A. Filter sterilization is less expensive than autoclaving.
B. Filter sterilization is used when the contents of the liquid could be harmed by heat.
C. Filter sterilization is more effective than autoclaving

Filter sterilization is used when the contents of the liquid could be harmed by heat

Which of the following shows the moist heat methods in order of the temperature used (highest to lowest)?

A. Ultrahigh>Boiling>Autoclave>Batch Pasteurization
B. Ultrahigh>Autoclave>Boiling>Batch Pasteurization
C. Autoclave>Ultrahigh>Batch Pasteurization>Boiling
D. Ultrahigh> Boiling>Batch Pasteurization >Autoclave

Ultrahigh>Autoclave>Boiling>Batch Pasteurization

_______________ is a process used to destroy pathogens in food and drinks. It must be done at a lower temperature than other methods so that _______________.

A. autoclaving; beneficial microorganisms are not killed
B. Pasteurization; beneficial microorganisms are not killed
C. autoclaving; the taste of the food or drink will not be altered
D. Pasteurization; the taste of the food or drink will not be altered

Pasteurization; the taste of the food or drink will not be altered

During a flood, a community's well water system is contaminated with a pathogenic fungus. If the residents boil their water for 15 minutes prior to consumption, will they be protected?

A. yes, most likely
B. probably not
C. definitely not

yes, most likely

Which of the following chemical agents is used for sterilization?

A. phenolics
B. ethylene oxide
C. alcohol
D. soap
E. chlorine

ethylene oxide

Which of the following is the best method to sterilize heat-labile solutions?

A. dry heat
B. autoclave
C. pasteurization
D. freezing
E. membrane filtration

membrane filtration

Which of the following pairs of terms is mismatched?

A. virucide - inactivates viruses
B. fungicide kills yeasts and molds
C. sterilant destroys all living microorganisms
D. bacteriostatic kills vegetative bacterial cells
E. germicide - kills microbes

bacteriostatic kills vegetative bacterial cells

Which of the following is a limitation of the autoclave?

A. It requires an excessively long time to achieve sterilization.
B. It cannot be used with glassware.
C. It cannot inactivate viruses.
D. It cannot be used with heat-labile materials.
E. It cannot kill endospores

It cannot be used with heat-labile materials

Application of heat to living cells can result in all of the following EXCEPT

A. alteration of membrane permeability.
B. denaturation of enzymes.
C. decreased thermal death time.
D. damage to nucleic acids.
E. breaking of hydrogen bonds

decreased thermal death time

Which of the following disinfectants acts by disrupting the plasma membrane?

A. heavy metals
B. halogens
C. bisphenols
D. soaps
E. aldehydes

bisphenols

Which concentration of ethanol is the most effective bactericide?

A. 100%
B. 70%
C. 50%
D. 40%
E. 30%

70%

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

A. organic acids food preservation
B. H2O2 open wounds
C. alcohols open wounds
D. Ag wound dressings
E. CuSO4 algicide

alcohols open wounds

Which of the following results in lethal damage to nucleic acids?

A. heat
B. radiation
C. certain chemicals
D. heat and radiation
E. heat, radiation, and some chemicals

heat, radiation, and some chemicals

60 minutes

In the figure, what is the thermal death time?

A. 150°C
B. 120 minutes
C. 100°C
D. 60 minutes
E. The answer cannot be determined.

The preservation of beef jerky from microbial growth relies on which method of microbial control?

A. filtration
B. lyophilization
C. desiccation
D. supercritical CO2
E. ionizing radiation

desiccation

True/ False

Microorganisms placed in high concentrations of salts and sugars undergo lysis.

False

True/ False

The pH of the medium has no effect on the activity of the disinfectant being applied.

False

True/ False

Pseudomonas has been found growing in quaternary ammonium compounds (quats).

True

The destruction or removal of all forms of life

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

sterilization

The destruction of vegetative pathogens that do not form endospores

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

Disinfection

Treatment is directed at living tissue

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

Antisepsis

The mechanical removal of most microbes in an area

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

Degerming

Treatment intended to lower microbial counts on eatting and drinking utensils to safe public health levels

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

Sanitization

Usually done by steam under pressure or ethylene oxide

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

sterilization

True/ False

Heating is the most common use for killing microbes

True

When skin is cleaned with alcohol prior to an injection

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

Degerming

When a restaurant washes its dishes in a high-temp dishwasher

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

Sanitization

Food is subjected to enough heat to destroy the endospores

A. sterilization
B. Antisepsis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

sterilization

Kills microorganisms

A. Biocides
B. fungicides
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis

Biocides

Kills fungus

A. Biocides
B. fungicides
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis

fungicides

Inactivates viruses

A. Biocides
B. fungicides
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis

virucide

Treatments that inhibit the growth and multiplication of bacteria

A. sterilization
B. bacteriostasis
C. Disinfection
D. Degerming
E. Sanitization

bacteriostasis

The decay or putrid, indicates bacterial contamination

A. Biocides
B. aspetic
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis

spesis

Object or area is free of pathogens, absence of significant contamination

A. Biocides
B. aspetic
C. virucide
D. bacteriostasis
E. spesis

aspetic

True/False

Aspetic technique is important in surgery to minimize contamination

True

True/ False

The more microbes there are to begin with, the longer it takes to eliminate the entire population

True

True/False

The presence of organic matter does not inhibit the action of chemical antimicrobials

False

True/False

Disinfectants work better under colder temps

False

They work better under warm temps

True/ False

Biocides work on microbes in biofilms

False

Biocides do NOT reach microbes in biofilms because their activity is due to temp-dependent chemical reactions

What affects the choice of chemical and physical control methods

A. Time of exposure
B. Environment
C. Number of microbes
D. Microbial characteristics

Microbial characteristics

What is required to affect more resistant microbes or endospores

A. Time of exposure
B. Environment
C. bacteriostasis
D. filtration

Time of exposure

What is more effective under acidic conditions

A. heat
B. UV radiation
C. chemicals
D. gases

heat

What regulates the passage of nutrients into the cell and eliminates waste

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid

plasma membrane

Is the target of many microbial control agents

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid

plasma membrane

What are vital to cellular activity

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid

Enzymes

Cells can no longer replicate, nor can it carry out normal metabolic functions if there is damage to what

A. cell wall
B. plasma membrane
C. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acid

Nucleic acid

Can kill vegetative forms of bacterial pathogens, but does not kill virueses and endospores

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

boiling

Not a reliable sterilization procedure

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

boiling

Useful to sanitize glass

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

boiling

Best way to sterilize

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

Autoclaving

Used in hospital environments to sterilize equipment

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

Autoclaving

True/ False

Steam under pressure fails to sterilize when the air is not completely exhausted

True

The lowest temp at which all microorganisms in a particular liquid suspension will be killed in 10 minutes

A. Decimal reduction time
B. Thermal death time
C. Thermal death point

Thermal death point

MInimal length of time for all bacteria in a particular liquid culture to be killed at a given temp will be killed

A. Decimal reduction time
B. Thermal death time
C. Thermal death point

Thermal death time

The time in minutes, in which 90% of the population of bacteria at a given temp will be killed

A. Decimal reduction time
B. Thermal death time
C. Thermal death point

Decimal reduction time

Temp must be above 100 degree celsius in order to kill all forms of life.

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

Autoclaving

The purpose of this method to control microbial growth is to eliminate pathogenic microbes and reduce microbial numbers

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

pasteurization

This process gives the product a longer shelf life

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

pasteurization

True/False

When milk is pasteurized it is made sterile

False

A method of treating food with high temps for very short times to make the food sterile so that it can be stored at room temp.

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)

ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)

Pasteurizing at 72C for 15minutes to kill pathogens as well lowers total bacterial counts

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)

High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization

Process of sterilizing an inoculating loop by holding it in an open flame

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)

flaming

Sterilization by the use of an oven at 170C for 2hours

A. Hot-air sterilization
B. High-temp short-time (HTST) pasteurization
C. flaming
D. ultra-high temp treatment (UHT)

Hot-air sterilization

Kills by oxidation effects

A. boiling
B. Autoclaving
C. pasteurization
D. Dry heat sterilization

Dry heat sterilization

This is used to sterilize heat-sensitive materials, such as culture media, enzymes, vaccines and antibiotic solutions

A. Low Temps
B. Moist Heat
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
E. Osmotic Pressure

Filtration

True/ False

Bacteria are to large to pass through a filter and are retained on it.

True

True/False

HEPA filters are used to remove microorganisms from the air

True

What type of filter is when a sample needs to be sterilized.

A. Membrane filter
B. HEPA filter

Membrane filter

Which filter is used to remove microorganisms from the air

A. Membrane filter
B. HEPA filter

HEPA filter

The main effect of cold treatment is to

A. kill pathogenic microbes
B. To sterilize an item
C. To slow microbial growth
D. To destroy vegetative cells

To slow microbial growth

Most pathogenic bacteria are

A. mesophilic
B. psychotrophic
C. thermophilic

mesophilic

Refrigeration has a bacteriostatic effect on most microbes so they

A. grow farily well
B. will not grow at all
C. cannot reproduce or make toxins

cannot reproduce or make toxins

Psychrotrophs _______ at refrigerator temps

A. grow farily well
B. will not grow at all
C. cannot reproduce or make toxins

grow farily well

Bacteria that are mesophilic _____ at refrigerator temps

A. grow farily well
B. will not grow at all
C. cannot reproduce or make toxins

will not grow at all

Advantage of this method is that it preserves the flavors, colors, and nutrient values of products

A. Low Temps
B. Moist Heat
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
E. Osmotic Pressure

High Pressure

If the pressure is _____ enough, it alters the molecular structures of proteins and carbohydrates.

A. Low
B. High

High

WHat happens to vegetative cells when the pressure is high

A. the vegetative cells become deystroyed, rapidly
B. the vegetative cells grow slowly over a longer period of time
C. the vegetative cells multiply at a faster rate

the vegetative cells become deystroyed, rapidly

This processes uses high concentrations of salts and sugars to cause water to leave cells

A. Low Temps
B. Moist Heat
C. Filtration
D. High Pressure
E. Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic Pressure

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