Human-induced changes on the natural environment.
Theory and practice of making visual representations of the earth's surface in the form of maps.
The Study of the interactions between societies adn the natural environment they live in.
The human-modified natural landscape specifically containing the imprint of a particular culture or society.
Earth System Science
Systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.
The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.
The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term ''geograhpy.''
Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land streching from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 8000 B.C.
Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.
Global Positioning System
A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on the Earth's surface with a portable electronic device.
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place.
George Perkins Marsh
Inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work,' Man and Nature,' or 'Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action,' provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.
He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions: the earth-science tradition, the culture-environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analysis tradition.
The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the earth's surface.
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of ''Guide to Geography'' which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.
Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
A period in human geography associatedc with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of place elsewhere.
The study of geographic regions.
Observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images.
Geographer from the universtiy of california at Berkeley who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical ananlysis.This Lanscape results from interaction between humans and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no lanscape has escaped alteration by human activites.
Sense of Place
Feeling evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.
An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other places.
The concept of using the earth's resources in such a way that they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing the earth's ability to provide for the future generations.
The study of the earth's integrated systems as a whole, instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single place.
Individual maps of specific features that are overlaid on one another in a Geographical Information System to understand and analyze a spatial relationship.
Also called a Perceptual region.