AP Human Geography chapter 2 vocab

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demography

the scientific study of population characteristics

overpopulation

the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support at a decent standard of living

ecumene

the portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement

arithmetic density

the total number of people divided by total land area

physiological density

the number of people supported by a unit area of arable land

agricultural density

the ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land

crude birth rate

the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

crude death rate

the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society

natural increase rate

the percentage by which a population grows in a year

doubling time

the number of years needed to double a population

total fertility rate

used by geographers to measure the number of births in a society

infant mortality rate

the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age

life expectancy

measures the average number years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels

demographic transition

the process of chance in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rates of natural increase, and a higher total population

agricultural revolution

the time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering

Industrial Revolution

a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods

medical revolution

improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more people to live longer and healthier lives

zero population growth

a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero

dependency ratio

the number of people who are too young or too old to work

population pyramid

a country's population can be displayed by age and gender groups on a bar graph

sex ratio

the number of males per hundred females in the population

census

the single most important data source for human geographers

epidemiologic transition

distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition

epidemiology

the branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people

pandemic

disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population

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