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Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.

cognitive dissonance

The subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to the prevention and treatment of illness is known as

health psychology.

Those who feel socially pressured sometimes assert their freedom by doing the opposite of what is socially expected. This best illustrates

personal control.

In every one of the 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of

self-serving bias.

In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought

no others were pulling with them.

In addition to secreting orexin, the ________ monitors levels of the body's other appetite hormones.

hypothalamus

Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quarter-mile race are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusion best illustrates

a pessimistic attributional style.

Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of

a positive self-concept.

Luella publicly agrees with her seventh-grade classmates that parents should allow 13-year-olds to date. Later that day, she writes in her diary that she actually believes parents should prohibit kids from dating until they are at least 15 years old. Luella's public conformity to her classmates' opinion best illustrates the power of

normative social influence.

A lie detector test is used to monitor a person's

respiration.

Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by

inhibiting the production of lymphocytes.

A characteristic pattern of behavior or tendency to act and feel in a certain way is called a

trait.

A Harvard School of Public Health research team studied 1306 initially healthy men over a 10-year period. They found that ________ were more than twice as likely as ________ to develop heart disease.

pessimists; optimists

People are more critical of their ________ selves than of their ________ selves.

past; current

The study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes combine to affect our immune system and health is called

psychoneuroimmunology.

Those with an internal locus of control act ________ independently and feel ________ depressed than those with an external locus of control.

more; less

Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as

unconditional positive regard.

Motivation is defined by psychologists as

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal.

The MMPI is an example of a(n)

personality inventory.

Mr. Porter believes that aggression is an unlearned behavior characteristic of all children. He obviously believes that aggression is a(n)

instinct.

By motivating us to satisfy our physical needs, hunger and thirst serve to

maintain homeostasis.

Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates

self-serving bias.

According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people, who are not usually hostile, can become agents of destruction.

Which of the following is most likely to foster stronger immune functioning?

social support

Ancel Keys and his colleagues observed that men on a semistarvation diet

lost interest in sex and social activities.

According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.

Cannon-Bard theory

Studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating the impact of ________ on behavior.

personality traits

A notable improvement in morale was observed among nursing home patients who experienced an enhanced sense of

personal control.

After she was promoted to a high-level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Jorana developed more pro-business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on attitudes.

role playing

Antonio's car stalls in the middle of a railroad crossing just as a train is rapidly approaching. His emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by

dilation of his pupils.

The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called

the facial feedback effect.

Students perceive themselves as less likely than the average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates

unrealistic optimism.

Undergraduate women who had been sexually abused as children were especially likely to report health problems if they had

kept the abuse a secret.

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal. According to the Cannon-Bard theory, we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.

after; at the same time as

When "executive" and "subordinate" rats received simultaneous electric shocks, the ________ rat was subsequently more likely to develop ________.

"subordinate"; ulcers

Judy found that her party guests ate less from a very large plate of cupcakes that were cut in half rather than whole. This best illustrates

unit bias.

Two-thirds of Americans responding to surveys taken in the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks reported

sleeping difficulties.

Humanistic theorists have been criticized for

underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.

The use of positive emotion words in text messaging is best predicted by the Big Five trait of

agreeableness.

Research on self-perception indicates that most people

view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others.

When Mr. Morgan misinterpreted his harmless symptoms of autonomic nervous system arousal as indicative of an impending heart attack, he suffered an unusually intense level of fear. His emotional suffering is best understood in terms of the

two-factor theory.

Freud is to psychoanalytic theory as Allport is to ________ theory.

trait

Evidence that obesity is influenced by factors in addition to genetics includes the fact that

the average American weighs more today than did the average American 50 years ago.

While taking a difficult test, Cindy's muscles tense and her heart pounds. These physiological responses are

stress reactions.

A terrorist mentality that becomes increasingly extreme among people who interact without outside moderating influences best illustrates

group polarization.

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.

describing; explaining

In an experiment to test the spillover effect, college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter's accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment were LEAST likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter's accomplice?

those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused

The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

belief-based feelings

Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will

develop an increasing dislike for his brother.

Type A personality is to Type B personality as ________ is to _______.

irritable; calm

Homeostasis, which is the goal of drive reduction, is defined as

the body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.

Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as

problem-focused coping.

A diminished sense of self, space, and time is most likely to be associated with

meditative relaxation.

Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lack

perceived control.

Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and

drive reduction.

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-Lange theory.

cognitive activity

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking toward a group standard is called

conformity.

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.

situational influences; personal dispositions

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.

need; drive

Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?

Carl Rogers

Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to

exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal.

Feelings of hunger accompany ________ levels of blood glucose and ________ levels of ghrelin.

low; high

Social-cognitive psychologists suggest that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's

past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates

an internal locus of control.

People who score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as ________ are also more likely to earn better high school and university grades.

conscientiousness

Exercising regularly and getting enough sleep contribute to a(n) ________ in metabolism and a(n) ________ in the settling point.

increase; decrease

Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.

Phase 2

In which country are people most likely to convey visible facial expressions of their inner feelings?

Australia

In one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants' willingness to hire the applicants revealed

greater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.

Eyeblinks ________ during lie telling, and those who are lying use ________ first-person pronouns.

decrease; more

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the

Cannon-Bard theory.

Rodents who experienced inescapable shocks were more prone to developing cancer if they had previously been exposed to

carcinogens.

Botox paralysis of the frowning facial muscles ________ people's reading of sadness-related sentences and ________ activity in emotion-related brain circuits.

slows; slows

According to Maslow, the desire to fulfill one's potential is the motivation for

self-actualization.

Carl Rogers suggested that the ________ is a central feature of personality.

self-concept

Which of the following BEST explains why stress heightens vulnerability to bacterial and viral infections?

Stress hormones suppress the production of lymphocytes.

In terms of ability to recognize others' facial expressions of emotion

introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men.

One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk of

obesity.

Which of the following is a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by the hypothalamus?

orexin

Trait theorists are more concerned with ________ personality than with ________ it.

describing; explaining

Lymphocytes are

white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system.

An aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need is called a(n)

drive

According to Maslow, our need for _______ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.

adequate clothing; self-esteem

Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be

even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.

Randy's substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. This best illustrates the importance of

reciprocal determinism.

Some students work hard in school to attain high grades. This best illustrates the importance of

incentives.

Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night, he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the

foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

Immune system cells that pursue and destroy diseased body cells are called

NK cells.

Dr. Zytowics wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression, social withdrawal, and other symptoms of an emotional disorder. Which personality inventory would be most helpful for this purpose?

MMPI

Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of

a positive self-concept.

Who is the best example of a Type B personality?

Wang Lung, a relaxed, easygoing dentist

After breaking up with her boyfriend, Kathy alleviated her stress by avoiding contact with her ex-boyfriend and by planning recreational activities with her best girlfriend. Kathy's behavior best illustrates

emotion-focused coping.

People become obsessed with water when thirsty and obsessed with food when hungry. This illustrates that activated motives

dominate consciousness.

People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance of ________ in communication.

tones of voice

Andrea's physician has suggested that a program of relaxation training would provide the best treatment for her high blood pressure. The physician probably considers Andrea's hypertension to be a(n) ________ illness.

psychophysiological

Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?

arousal theory

Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate

empathy.

Aleksis has recently begun to bully and hurt his younger brother. If this behavior continues, it is likely that Aleksis will

develop an increasing dislike for his brother.

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that

Research on obesity and weight control indicates that

Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates

social facilitation.

Exercising regularly and getting enough sleep contribute to a(n) ________ in metabolism and a(n) ________ in the settling point.

increase; decrease

The arousal theory of motivation would be most useful for understanding the aversive effects of

boredom

People who laugh a lot have exhibited a lower incidence of

heart disease.

Comedy routines that are mildly amusing to people in an uncrowded room seem funnier in a densely packed room. This is best explained in terms of

social facilitation.

The relentless pursuit of thinness puts people at ________ risk for depression and ________ risk for binge eating.

increased; increased

The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome is characterized by

resistance.

A stress-moderating hormone released by cuddling and associated with pair-bonding is known as

oxytocin.

Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that

actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes.

A notable improvement in morale was observed among nursing home patients who experienced an enhanced sense of

personal control.

Compared with central route persuasion, peripheral route persuasion tends to

occur more rapidly.

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it

emphasizes the use of scientific methods.

A psychologist would most likely use biofeedback to provide clients with information about their

muscle tension.

Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble"?

William James

When encouraged to eat their fill of M&M's, people ate more when given a large rather than a small serving spoon. This most clearly reflects

unit bias.

Attitudes are ________ that guide behavior.

belief-based feelings

We can better predict drivers' behavior at traffic lights from knowing the color of the lights than from knowing the drivers' personalities. This best illustrates the importance of

situational influences.

An integrated understanding of Tara's consistent cheerfulness in terms of her supportive peer relationships, her calm temperament, and her perceived internal locus of control best illustrates

a biopsychosocial approach.

After experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg became apathetic, stopped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg's reaction most clearly illustrates

learned helplessness.

Compared with men, women have ________ immune systems, and they are ________ susceptible to lupus and multiple sclerosis.

stronger; more

A deep neural center activated when people smell some disgusting food or when they feel moral disgust in response to a perceived injustice is called the

insula.

People's dislike of novel foods best illustrates

neophobia.

Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to

deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers.

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation.

Which of the following is most likely to help us empathize with others?

automatic mimicry

Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today's new generation as Generation Me because it expresses high levels of

narcissism.

Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?

social psychology

According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system arousal.

Cannon-Bard theory

Which of the following terms is used to describe the study of 15 positive emotions, desirable character traits, and enabling communities?

positive psychology

Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of

optimism.

The tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear or happiness is called

the facial feedback effect.

To study social facilitation, Norman Triplett observed adolescents while they were

winding fishing reels.

Food deprivation is to ________ as hunger is to ________.

need; drive

A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of the

two-factor theory.

When people with severe obesity undergo bypass surgery that seals off part of the stomach, the remaining stomach then produces much less

ghrelin.

When offered as many servings of ice cream as they would like to eat, people are likely to eat more if they

are offered servings from a wide variety rather than a small variety of ice cream flavors.

The participants in Philip Zimbardo's simulated prison study

were so endangered by their role-playing experience that the study was discontinued.

Which of the following suggestions would be the WORST advice for a dieter?

"Avoid eating during the day so you can enjoy a big meal in the evening."

The general adaptation syndrome describes stages in the

body's response to prolonged stress.

The macrophage and lymphocytes are major agents of the

immune system.

Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from

relaxation training.

Professional athletes perform better before an audience than when alone. This best illustrates

social facilitation.

The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of

groupthink.

To alleviate the stress he feels after failing a college course, Jeremy seeks social support from his friends and family. Jeremy's behavior best illustrates

emotion-focused coping.

Which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed?

parasympathetic

Social-cognitive psychologists suggest that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's

past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.

A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is

epinephrine.

Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a university debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.

cognitive dissonance

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