# AP Physics B: Thermodynamics - Symbols and Formulas

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### Tk = Tc + 273.15

Conversion between Kelvin and Celsius

### U = N(3/2)kT

Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (N)

### N (therm.)

number of molecules

### k (therm.)

Boltzman's constant: 1.38 X 10^-23 J/K

### U = n(3/2)RT

Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (n)

number of moles

### R (therm.)

Universal Gas constant: 8.31 J/molk Or .0821 Latm/molk

### U = (3/2)PV

Internal Energy of a Monatomic ideal Gas (P;V)

### ΔL = L₀∝ΔT

Formula for Linear Expansion

### ΔL

Length increase/decrease

Initial Length

### ∝

Coefficient of linear expansion (used to identify metals)

### ΔT

Change in Temperature

### 1 mole = 6.022 x 10^23 molecules

Avogodro's Number

Combined Gas Law

### PV = nRT

Ideal Gas Law (n)

### PV = NkT

Ideal Gas Law (N)

### (½mv²)av = Kav = 3/2kT

Kinetic Energy and Temperature

### vrms = √3kT/m = √3RT/M

Root Mean Square (RMS) speed; "average of average" speed

### ΔU = Q + W

1st Law of Thermodymanics

P - V Diagram

Heat Engine

### e = W/Qh = 1 - Qc/Qh

Thermal Efficiency

### Ec = Th - Tc/Th = 1 - Tc/Th

Carnot Efficiency

Entropy

Example: