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angiogenesis

growth of veins

benign

a tumor that does not metastasize

biopsy

the removal of a sample of living tissue for microscopic examination to help diagnose disease

bone marrow

found in hollow bone interior; produces new blood cells; two types red and yellow

carcinogen

chemical agent or radiation that produces cancer

carcinoma

malignant cancer that arises from epithelial cells

cell cycle

growth and division of one cell into two cells

cytoxic

produces a toxic effect in cells

epidemiology

study of the occurrence and transmission of diseases and disorders in human population

etiology

the study of causation/origin

grade

stage or level

hyperplasia

abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ increasing its size

incidence

occurrence or happening

lesion

any localized abnormal change in body tissue

lifetime risk

the probability of getting a disease in a lifetime

malignant

a tumor that can metastasize

melanoma

a malignant tumor of melanocytes (found on skin)

metastasis

spread of cancer to surrounding tissues or other body sites

mortality

condition of mortality; able to die

mutagen

mutation causing agent

mutation

any change in the sequence of DNA that causes a permanent change

necrosis

pathological type of cell death caused by disease, injury, or lack of blood that results in adjacent cells swelling, bursting, and spilling thier contents causing imflammatory response

oncogene

cancer causing genes

prognosis

a forecast of the probable results of a disorder

proto oncogene

gene responsible for some aspect of normal growth and development

relative risk

compares the risk of developing cancer between people with a common characteristic or exposure

sarcoma

cancer in connective tissue resulting in mesoderm proliferation

tumor

cells divide without restraint and excess tissue becomes...

tumor suppressor gene

gene coding for a protein that normally limits cell division

morbidity

poor health due to any cause

tissue

a group of similar cells and their intercellular substance joined together to perform a specific function

epithelial tissue

the tissue that forms the innermost and outermost surfaces of body structures and forms glands

basement membrane

thin, extracellular layer between epithelium and connective tissue consisting of a basal lamina and reticular lamina

avascular

without blood vessels

connective tissue

most abundant of four basic tissues in body; basic functions of binding and supporting; few cells in a mix of ground substance and fibers

fibroblast

large flat cell that secretes most of teh extracellular matrix of areolar and dense connective tissue, a cell from which connective tissue develops

macrophage

phagocytic cell derived from monocyte

plasma cells

cells that develop from lymphocyte and produce antibodies

mast cells

a cell found in areolar connective tissue that releasese histamine during inflammation

adipocytes

fat cell derived from a fibroblast

loose connective tissue

loosely intertwined fibers between cells; types: areolar, adipose, reticular

dense connective tissue

more numerous and thicker, denser fibers with fewer cells; types: dense regular, dense irregular, elastic

cartilage

connective tissue embedded in dense network of collagen and elastic fibers and extracellular mix of chondroitin sulfate

bone tissue

either compact or spongy; make up bones

blood tissue

connective tissue with extracullular matrix of blood plasma

lymph

extracellular fluid that flows in lymphatic vessels

skeletal muscle

organ specialized for ontraction; made of striated muscle fibers; supported by connective tissue attached to bones or tendons

cardiac muscle

striated muscle fibers that form the wall of the heart

smooth muscle

specialized for contraction; made of smooth muscle fibers; in hollow interior organs

neurons

nerve cell; cell body, dendrite, axon

axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands

dendrite

the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body

epidermis

superficial thinner layer of skin; made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium

dermis

layer of dense irregular connective tissue deep to the epidermis

keratinocytes

the most numerous of epidermal cells; produces keratin

melanocyte

pigmented cell located between/beneath cells of the deepest layer of epidermis that synthesizes melanin

langerhans cell

epidermal dendritic cell that functions as an antigen presenting cell during an immune response

Merkel cell

type of cell in the epidermis of hairless skin that makes contact with tactile disc; functions in touch

papillary region

1/5 of total layer of dermis; made of dermal papillae; areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers

dermal papillae

small finger like projections that increase surface area

Meissner corpuscle

sensory receptor for sensations of touch; in dermal papillae

reticular region

attached to subcutaneous layer; made of dense irregular with fibroblasts, bundles of collagen, soem coarse elastic fibers

epidermal ridges

fingerprints; on palms, fingers, feet, toes; ridges and grooves pulled in not pushed out

melanin

dark black, brown, yellow pigment found in some parts of the body

carotene

precursor to vitamin a; yellow orange pigment present in stratum cornelum of epidermis

hair follicle

structure composed of epithelium and surrounding the root of hair; where hair develops

papilla of the hair

contains areolar and many blood vessels that nourish hair

inflammatory phase

blood clot forms in the wound and loosely unites the wound

migratory phase

clot becomes scap and epithelial cells migrate along fibrin threads and make scar tissue and blood vessels begin to grow

proliferation phase

extensive growth of epithelial cells beneath scab; blood vessels continue to grow; collagen fibers form

maturation phase

scab falls off when epidermis is at normal thickness

fibrosis

process of scar tissue formation

hypertrophic scar

raised scar that remains within bounds of original wound

keloid scar

scar extends beyond original bounds of wound

suture

an immovable fibrous joint that joins skull bones

paranasal sinuses

mucus lined air cavity in a skull bone that communicates with the nasal cavity

fontanels

mesenchyme filled space where bone formation is not yet complete

nasal septum

a vertical partition composed of bone and cartilage; covered with a mucous membrane separating the nasal cavity into left/right

vertebrae

make up spinal column

intervertebral disc

a pad of fibrocartilage located between bodies of two vertebrae

coccyx

the fused bones at the inferior end of the vertebral column

carpus

collective term for the 8 bones of the wrist

carpals

8 bones of the wrist

metacarpals

term for 5 bones in the palm

phalanx

bone of the finger/toe

tarsus

collective term for 7 bones in ankle

metatarsus

5 bones in the foot between tarsals and phalanges

axial skeleton

head and torso

appendicular skeleton

appendages

coronal suture

frontal bone and both parietal bones

sagittal suture

unites two parietal bones on superior midline of the skull

lambdoid suture

unites two parietal bones to occipital bone

squamous sutures

unite parietal and temporal bones on hte lateral aspects of the skull

foramina

openings for blood vessels nerves or ligaments

hyoid bone

u shaped; axial skeleton; unique because it is suspended by muscles and ligaments from styloid processes

cervical vertebrae

found in neck region

atlas

first cervical vertebrae

axis

second cervical vertebrae

thoracic vertebrae

larger and stronger than cervical vertebrae; long and laterally flattened

lumbar vertebrae

largest strongest in vertebral column; short and thick projections

sacrum

triangular bone formed by the union of 5 sacral vertebrae

pectoral girdles

attach bones of upper limbs to axial skeleton

clavicle

anterior bone superior to first rib

phalanges

bones of digits

intercalated discs

irregular transverse thickening of sarcolemma that contains demosomes which hold cardiac muscle cells together, and gap junctions, aid in action potentials

T tubules

small cylindrical indentations of sarcolemma of striated muscle cells that conduct muscle action potentials towards inside of cell

triad

complex of three units in a muscle fiber made of T tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum terminal cisterns on both sides of it

thick filaments

made of myosin; in myofibrils

thin filaments

made of actin; in myofibrils

actin

a contractile protein part of thin filaments

tropomyosin

regulatory protein part of thin filament

troponin

regulatory protein part of thin filament

intermediate filaments

protein filament may provide strutural reinforcement hold organelles in place, gives shape to cells

I bands

lighter, less dense area containing rest of thin but no thick filaments

Z discs

narrow plate shaped regions separate sarcomeres from one another

A bands

middle part of sarcomere; extends entire length of thick filament

M Line

middle of sarcomere

axon terminal

terminal branch of an axon where synaptic vesicles undergo exocytosis to release neurotransmitter molecules

neuromuscular junction

synapse between axon terminals of motor neuron and sarcolemma of muscle cell

synaptic end bulbs

expanded distal end of axon terminal contains synaptit vesicles

synaptic vesicles

membrane enclosed sac in synaptic knob that stores neurotransmitters

synaptic cleft

narrow gap at chemical synapse separates axon terminals, across which neurotransmitter diffuses to affect post synaptic cell

motor end plate

region of sarcolemma of muscle fiber that ends in acetylcholine receptors which bind ACh released by synaptic and bulbs of somatic motor neurons

acetylcoline

neurotransmitter excites n some places and inhibits in others.

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