ANATOMY

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muscles glands and sensory receptors

The nerve fibers scattered throughout the dermis are associated with

dermis

The subcutaneous layer is located beneath the ¬¬¬____

die

As cells are pushed from the deeper portion of the epidermis toward the surface they ___

skin

The ___ functions to retard water loss, excrete waste, and regulate body temperature

dermis and subcutaneous layer

The blood vessels that supply skin cells are found in the ___ and ___ ___

cells

The main function of melanocytes is to protect deeper ____ from sunlight

dermis

Epidermal cells are supplied with nutrients from blood vessles located in the ___

vitamin d

Skin cells play an important role in the production of ¬¬¬¬___ _

epithelial cells

The cells that produce the shaft of a hair are ___ __

conserved

When the smooth muscles in the walls of dermal blood vessels contract body heat is ___

eccrine sweat glands

Respond primarily to elevated body temperature

sebaceous glands

Acne is a disorder involving the ___ ___

basale

The deepest cells of the epidermis make up the stratum___

keratin

As epidermal cells are pushed toward the surface, strands of protein called ¬¬_____ develop in their cytoplasm

Melanin

____ is the pigment produced by melanocytes

adiopose

The ____ tissue of the subcutaneous layer acts as a heat insulator

apocrine

The ____ glands of the skin respond to emotional stress and begin to function at puberty

smooth

The arrector pili muscle is composed of _____ muscle tissue

Sebum

_____ is the oily secretion of the sebaceous gland

True

The skin is one of the larger organs of the body (T/F)

true

In healthy skin, the production of epidermal cells is closely balanced with the loss of skin cells (T/F)

False

The outermost layer of the epidermis is the stratum basale and the innermost layer is the stratum corneum (T/F)

False

The dermis is very flat compared to the epidermis, which has ridges projecting inward and elevations called papillae (T/F)

true

Carcinomas appear most often in the skin of the neck, face, and scalp (T/F)

False

Hair color is determined by the amount of keratin protein produced during keratinization (T/F)

muscles

These tissues make up ___; Skeletal muscle tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and blood

Myosin and actin

Striations in skeletal muscles are caused by the arrangement of what thick and thin filament structures in the muscles?

sternum; clavicle

Explain how a muscle like the sternocleidomastoid gets its name. It covers the area near the ___ and the ___

aponeurosis

A think flat sheet of connective tissue between muscles such as between the external oblique muscles is called (a/an)

fascia

A layer of dense connective tissue that surrounds and separates muscles and is also continuous with tendons is called (a/an)

fascicle

A bundle of muscle fibers is called (a/an)

false

(T/F) A Carbohydrate filaments of actin and myosin make up sarcomeres

a neuromuscular junction

The site where a motor neuron and muscle fiber meet

a motor unit

Controls many muscle fibers that all contract at once

contract

Muscles ____ as myosin cross-bridges attach to and pull on actin filaments

Calcium

Which element is essential for muscle contraction?

myoglobin

This pigment stores oxygen in the muscles and gives muscle tissue a reddish color

lactic acid

During strenuous activity ___________ is produced during anaerobic respiration and can be the cause of sore muscles

a titanic contraction

A contraction without any relaxation is called

true

Mitochondria are abundant at the neuromuscular junction (T/F)

true

Neurotransmitters are stored in the synaptic vesicles of the motor neurons (T/F)

false

Muscles can only have one origin and insertion (T/F)

true

Muscles contract by the shortening of sarcomeres (T/F)

true

Muscle cramps occur when there is not enough ATP to return calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (T/F)

false

An increase in the number of motor units activated during a contraction is called summation (T/F)

threshold

A muscle fiber remains unresponsive to stimulation unless the _____reached

twitch

A single short contraction involving only a few motor units is referred to as a ____

latent period

The time delay between when a stimulus is applied and when the muscle contracts are called the _____ _____

sustained

The combination of recruitment and summation results in a _____ contraction

insertion

The immovable attachment point of a muscle is called the origin the movable end of the muscle is called the _____

peristalsis

Rythmicity in smooth muscles of hollow tube like organs, results in actions like swallowing and the movement of feces through the intestine. This wave like motion is called _____

antagonist

A muscle that opposes the action of another muscle is called (a/an)_____

osteoporosis

Low intake of dietary calcium, Lack of physical exercise and Frequent use of beverage alcohol will increase your risk of ____

osteocyte

An ____ is a mature bone cell surrounded by matrix

Lacunae

The microscopic bony chambers that house mature bone cells are called ____

Calcium phosphate

The salts that form tiny crystals in the intercellular matrix of bone tissue consist largely of ___ ___

Intramembranous bone

Bone that develops between sheetlike layers of connective tissue is called ___ ___

Red bone marrow

__ __ ___ functions in the formation of red and white blood cells and platelets

Osteoclasts

The cells responsible for removing excess bone tissue after the fracture repair process are ____

Zygomatic and temporal bones

The zygomatic arch is composed of processes of the ___ and ___ __

Maxillae

A cleft palate results from incomplete development of the ___

Maxillary bone

Which of the following is part of the facial skeleton?

Articular cartilage

The degenerative joint disease osteoarthritis may develop as a result of wearing away or softening of the ___ ___

joints

Arthroscopy is a procedure used to examine the ___

True

Osteoclasts are large cells that cause the breakdown of osseous tissue (T/F)

False

The appendicular skeleton consists of the parts that support and protect the head, neck and trunk (T/F)

True

The importance of fontanels in the infant's skull is to permit some movement of bones, thereby enabling the infant to pass more easily though the birth canal (T/F)

False

The tarsal bones form the wrist (T/F)

True

A meniscus functions to cushion articulating surfaces of bones (T/F)

True

Synovial fluid moistens and lubricates the cartilaginous surfaces within a joint (T/F)

True

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint (T/F)

periostiem

The tough, fibrous tissue that encloses a long bone is called the ___________

Lever

The basic parts of a(an) __________ include a rod, fulcrum, weight and force

Hemopoisis

__________ is the process of blood cell formation

fontanels

The membranous soft spots of a newborn's skull are called __________

carpus

The bones of the wrist together form the __________

Symphysis pubis

The joint created by the two pubic bones is the __________

osteoclasts

________ are large cells that can cause the breakdown of bone tissue

peristiem

A long bone grows in thickness as bone tissue is deposited beneath its ___________

interveterbral discs

The cartilaginous parts that separate the vertebrae are called __________

abduction

The movement of a limb away from the midline is ______

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