sailed to the U.S. under a false name to give Americans the secret of Britain's textile machines
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884)
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufactoring
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)
United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal (1769-1828)
was a noted educator, renowned for her forthright opinions on women's education as well as her vehement support of the many benefits of the incorporation of a kindergarten into children's education.
cotton and cotton-growing considered, in the pre-Civil War South, as a vital commodity, the major factor not only in the economy but also in politics.
dormitories for young women where they were cared for, fed, and sheltered in return for cheap labor, mill towns, homes for workers to live in around the mills
economic changes where people buy and sell goods rather than make them themselves
(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate
Cult of Domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
Second quarter of 1800s. Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. Unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States.
Ancient Order of HIbernians
Semisecret Irish organization that became a benevolent society aiding Irish immigrants in American.
a society fo irish miners who engaged in a violent confrontation with pennsylvania mining companies in the 19th century
General Incorporation Law
allows corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature. It also refers to a law enabling a certain type of corporation, such as a railroad, to exercise eminent domain and other special rights without a charter from the legislature.
express mail carried by relays of riders on horseback
Commonwealth v. hunt
court decided that unions were not conspiracies and it gave workers the right to protest and strike against companies
Order of the star-spangled-banner
made by Francis Scott Key made by watching battles on the ramparts
Alexis De Tocqueville
French political writer noted for his analysis of American institutions (1805-1859)
Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
James Russell Lowell
Ranks as one of America's better poets; distinguished essayist, literary critic, editor, and diplomat. Remembered as a political satirist in his Biglow Papers especially those of 1846 dealing with the Mexican War.
American writer remembered for the stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow," contained in The Sketch Book (1819-1820).
Oliver Wendell Holmes
United States writer of humorous essays (1809-1894)
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
James Fenimore Copper
The Leatherstocking Tales, The Pioneers, The Prairie, The Pathfinder, The Deerslayer, Last of the Mochicans (Natty Bumppo)
First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
Best known of the Methodist "circuit riders" (traveling frontier preachers). Sinewy servant of the Lord ranged for half-century from Tennessee to Illinois, calling upon sinners to repent.
American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
United States suffragist and feminist
Edgar Alan Poe
Gifted lyric poet. Wrote "The Raven"; master stylist, he also excelled in the short story especially horror type, in which he shared his alcoholic nightmares with fascinated readers. Wrote "The Gold Bug".
Susan B. Anthony
Key leader of woman suffrage movement
Ralph Waldo Emerson
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)
United States writer of novels and short stories mostly on moral themes (1804-1864)
Welsh industrialist and social reformer who founded cooperative communities (1771-1858)
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.
United States writer of novels and short stories (1819-1891)
Charles G. Finney
urged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals
He taught students morality, patriotism, and idealism.
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere
United States naturalist (born in Switzerland) who studied fossil fish
United States poet who celebrated the greatness of America (1819-1892)
French-American naturalist who was known for his paintings of wild birds in their natural surroundings, best known for his work Birds of America.
Henry W. Longfellow
Wrote many epic poems about history, though the were inacurate and very long
Louisa May Alcott
Novelist whose tales of family life helped economically support her own struggling transcendentalist family
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited "The Dial" which was the publication of the transcendentalists. It appealed to people who wanted "perfect freedom" "progress in philosophy and theology and hope that the future will not always be as the past".
historian with defective eyes that forced him to write in darkness with the aid of a guiding machine; chronicled the struggle between France and England in colonial times for mastery of North America
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
Phineas T. Barnum
an American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus
United States songwriter whose songs embody the sentiment of the South before the American Civil War (1826-1864)
Organization whose mission was to ban all alcoholic beverages
a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States
passed in 1851 in Maine, was one of the first statutory implementations of the developing temperance movement in the United States.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Hudson River School
the first coherent school of American art
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
group in New York that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes
Burned Over District
Charles Grandison Finney gave the region its name, referring to NY as a "burnt district" because so many revivals had taken place there during America's Second Great Awakening
Declaration of Sentiments
declared that all "people are created equal"; used the Declaration of Independence to argue for women's rights
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
believed that christ would return on OCtober 22, 1842 also known as Adventists
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah
Harriet Beecher Stowe
United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
William Lloyd Garrison
United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)
United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)
United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia
former slave who became an abolitionist and women's rights activist
equated slavery with sin. A speaker who trained speakers who brought the movement to the heart of rural and small town in north.
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
Arthur and Lewis Tappan
In 1826, the brothers began to import silk from Asia, and they quickly earned a sizable fortune gave money to abolistionist causes and became very stong abolitionists
Elijah P. Lovejoy
1st martyr of the abolitionists movement. Editor of antislavery paper. Minister said slavery is a sin
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
John Quincy Adams
6th President of the United States
the doctrine that calls for the abolition of slavery
Areas in the south where cotton farming developed because of the high demand for cotton
antislavery newspaper founded by William Lloyd Garrison
American Anti-Slavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for "no Union with slaveholders" until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
southern euphemism for slavery
a former political party in the United States
In 1832 Theodore Dwight Weld went to the Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Seminary was presided over by Lyman Beecher. Weld and some of his comrades were kicked out for their actions of anti-slavery. The young men were known as the "Lane Rebels." They helped lead and continue the preaching of anti-slavery ideas.
A diplomat sent by Polk to buy California, New Mexico, and Texas from the Mexicans. Mexico rejected his offer and Polk sent Taylor's army into Mexico
United States general who was a hero of the War of 1812 and who defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War (1786-1866)
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston fought on April 21, 1836, in present-day Harris County, Texas,
Lone Star Republic
The texans had carried a flag with a simgle white star after winning independence, they nicknamed their nation the lone star republic
12th President of the United States
James K. Polk
11th President, led US to war with Mexico
A tariff for revenue bill that reduced that rates of the Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%.
Member of Congress who proposed an amendment to outlaw slavery in the territories acquired from Mexico
John C. Fremont
Presidential nominee for Republicans in election of 1856, founded and explored california in preceding decades.
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Webster Ashburton Treaty
1842 between the US and the Brits, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery and excredition
whigs, usually in the north, who opposed slavery
Bear Flag Revolt
Fight between Mexico and the United States for California: US victory
American steamer that was attacked in New York and set on fire by British Force.
Hudson's Bay Company
founded in 1670 in London, England, by a group of British merchants eager to exploit the resources of northern Canada.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Mexicans who lived in California
All of Mexico
People that believed strong in the Manifest Destiny wanted all of Mexico to be added to the country which posed many problems and was never done
Clash between Canadians and Americans over disputed timber country
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
1848 Democratic candidate known as the Father of Popular Sovereignty
Stephen A. Douglass
Supports popular sovereignty, wants to be president, also wants transcontinential railroad
14th President of the United States (1804-1869)
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
United States politician and orator (1782-1817)
Matthew C. Perry
took naval expedition to japan to negotiate a trade treaty
Former slave who helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad
William H. Seward
bought ALASKA s.o.s. , oil and gold found
American diplomat, politician, and railroad promoter who negotiated the Gadsden Purchase.
where the people decide for themselves wether or not to have something, the right of the people to govern themselves
Free Soil Party
a former political party in the United States
Southern politicians who sought secession
Fugitive Slave Law
escaped slaves had to be returned to their owners
abolitionists secret aid to escaping slaves
Compromise of 1850
Devised by Clay - California was free state, stricter Fugitive Slave Law, ended Slave Trade in DC
a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body
Set up Maine and Missouri as respective free and slave states, instituted 36 30 as the line
Clayton- Bulwer Treaty
called for two treaties to jointly build a canal
Attempt to buy Cuba from Spain for $20 million - not carried out
a principle that takes precedent over the laws of society
Kansas Nebraska act
a law that allowed the people in kansas and nebraska to decide of slavery would be legal.
a southern critic of slavery during the 1850s
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Guns provided young men who went to fight for free soil in Kansas.
Leading Radical Republican senator throughout the Civil War and Reconstruction periods
Responsible for beating radical republican Charles Sumner with his cane
Slave who was briefly taken by his owner into free territory
John C. Breckenridge
candidate of southern democrats for election of 1860
Candidate for the Constitutional Union Party
president of the confederacy
Senator who proposed slavery be protected by the Constitution
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe
Impending Crisis of the South
book written by Hinton Rowan Helper in 1857, condemns the institution of slavery
New England Immigrant aid Society
promoted anti-slavery migration to Kansas. The movement encouraged 2600 people to move.
Pottawatomie creek Massacre
lead by John Brown, 5 men are killed in a revolt
pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union - rejected
Term referring to bloodshed over popular sovereignty in a particular western territory
Panic of 1857
crash after Dred Scott Decision caused by speculation in the Crimean War and a slowing Northern economy, lowered tariffs as a result
Lincoln Douglass Debates
debates between republican lincoln and democrat douglas during the us senate campaign in illinois.
idea that any territory could ban slavery by simply refusing to pass laws supporting it
Harper's Ferry Raid
John Brown plans to start a slave uprising, so he steals weapons at Harpers Ferry and is stopped by U.S. Marines where he is captured
constitutional Union Party
a former political party in the United States
lincoln opposed it because it would allow slavery to spread to some of the territories
first battle of the civil war
three-part union strategy to win the Civil War
original Napolean's nephew; consolidated conservative gvt. and the ideals of nationalism
Austrian archduke, became emperor of Mexico by Napoleon III
Charles Francis Adams
convinced England to stop making ships for the south during the civil war
Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross
Edwin M. Stanton
Sec of War during Civil War, dismissed by Jackson under Tenure of Office
Morrill Tariff Act
1861 law that increased tariffs duties to 10%
National Banking Act
1863 - Established system of national charters for banks
Foreign event involving Union seizure of British ship with Confederate diplomats.
confederate wrships built in britian designed to destroy the union blockade.
New York Draft Riots
uprising of wroking- class Irish- Americans in protest of the draft
opposed lincoln;unionist of the Copperhead faction of anti-war, pro-Confederate Democrats
17th President of the United States
John Wilkes Booth
United States actor and assassin of President Lincoln (1838-1865)
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates (South)
Gen. "Stonewall"; Won the 1st Battle of Bull Run; Killed at Battle of Chancellorsville
Commanded the CS cavalry for Union Army at Yellow Tavern. He was also mortally wounded.
Ulysses S. Grant
Union military commander who won victories when others had failed and defeated Lee
George B. McClellan
second commander lincoln tried but too cautious
William T. Sherman
Commanded the western theater and his most famous campaign was the March to the Sea
Salmon P. Chase
American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and Governor of Ohio
Union naval admiral whose fleet captured New Orleans and Baton Rouge
American general in the Confederate army at Cemetery Ridge in the Battle of Gettysburg.
Merrimack and Monitor
was a naval battle of the American Civil War, famous for being the first fight between two ironclads
Declaration by Lincoln after Antietam declaring all slaves in rebelling states to be free
Democrats who opposed the civil war
united party between Republicans and Northern Democrats
either of two battles during the American Civil War (1861 and 1862)
It was a major Union victory over the South. It removed all hopes in the South of getting foreign support.
Leader of the Radical Republicans
Supported Radical Republicans, one of the leaders of the anti-slavery acts
provided: food, clothing, jobs, medical care, schools for former slaves and the poor whites
said a southern state could organize a government when 10% of the people had taken an oath
Wade Davis Bill
majority of whites to swear loyality, no former confed volunteer could hold office or vote
republicans believed the states that had seceded were these
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Poor people contracted with landowners to work the land and get a share of the crop
Civil Rights Act
guaranteed blacks the same treatment as whites in certain public places
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
swing around the circle
speaking campaign of US President Andrew Johnson in which he tried to gain support of his mild Reconstruction policies
Military Reconstruction act
set up martial law (military rule) in the South , nullified Johnson's programs
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
ex parte milligan
United States Supreme Court case that ruled suspension of Habeas Corpus
By 1870 southern states had reorganized their governments and had been accorded full rights. The hated "blue bellies" remained until the new Republican regimes—usually called _______—appeared to be firmly entrenched.
southern whites who supported republican policy throught reconstruction
Northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States, founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
acts that hurt the ku klux klan and stopped their night attacks,.
Tenure of office act
congress gave senate power to approve changes made to the senate
William Seward purchased alaska and americans mockingly called it
Editor of Atlanta Constitution headed group to build "New South"