Meterology Final

Created by kristief1974 

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100 terms

Viewed from above in the Northern Hemisphere, surface winds about about a subtropical high blow

clockwise and outward

Viewed from above in the Southern Hemisphere, surface winds about a subtropical high blow

counterclockwise and outward

The eastern flank of a subtropical anticyclone is characterized by

dry climates

The western flank of subtropical anticyclone is characterized by

moist climates

A broad region of light winds or calm air prevails

along the horse latitudes

Subtropical anticyclones are ---------core circulation systems.

warm

Over a broad region about the center of a subtropical high, the horizontal air pressure graident is relatively---- and winds are ---------.

weak, light or calm

The trade winds blow out of the -------fland of the subtropical anticyclones.

equatorward

In the Northern Hemisphere, trade winds blow from the

northeast.

In the Southern Hemisphere, trade winds blow from the

southeast

The global westerlies blow our of the ------fland of the subtropical anticyclones.

poleward

The tropical deserts of the world are found at latitudes near 30 degrees latitude because

of the sinking air associated with the subtropical highs.

Viewed from aboce in the Nothern Hemisphere, winds above the atmospheric boundary layer blow

clockwise and parallel to isobars.

Viewed from above, surface winds blow-----about the Icelandic low.

counterclockwise and inward

The trade winds of the two hemispheres converge in the

Subtropical highs.

The trade winds of the two hemispheres

diverge at the equator

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)

is a discontinuous belt of cumulonimbus clouds.

A front is a narrow zone of transition between air masses that contrast in

temperature, humidity, or density.

Hadley cells are located in the-----latitudes of both hemispheres.

tropical

Hadley Cells are

similar to huge convection cells.

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is

the persistent band of cloudiness near the equator.

In the Northern Hemisphere, with the shift from winter to summer, the semi-permanent subtropical highs shift

northward.

In the Northern Hemisphere, with the shift from summer to winter, the semi-permanent subtropical anticyclones shift

southward.

In the Northern Hemisphere autumn, the ITCZ shifts

poleward

In the Southern Hemisphere spring, the suptropical high shift

poleward

The middle latitude westerlies are more energetic in ---- then in ------.

winter, summer

Long-waves in the westerlies undergo changes in

wavelength, number of waves, and wave amplitude.

On a typical day, ------ Rossby long waves encircle the globe.

2 to 5

Which one of the following westerly wave patterns favors the maximum north-south exchange of air masses?

meridional flow

The westerly wave pattern this is likely to persist for the longest time is

meridional

A blocking pressure system is associated with a ----- flow pattern in the westerlies.

meridional

Across the United States, temperature contrasts are generally greatest during a --------------- circulation pattern in the westerlies.

strong meridoional

During droughts, when soil moisture is low, the Bowen ratio is relatively

low.

In the Midwest, drough is most likely with a ------- circulation pattern in the westerlies.

blocking

Horizontal divergence occurs to the ---- or an upper-air trough.

east

Horizontal convergence occurs to the----- of an upper-air ridge.

east

Horizontal divergence occurs to the ------ of an upper-air ridge.

west

Horizontal convergence occurs to the ----- of an upper-air trough.

west

A synoptic-scale cyclone is most likey to develop to on the ------- side of an upper-air trough.

west

A synoptic-scale cyclone is most likely to develop on the -------side of an upper air ridge.

west

In an essentially straight jet streak viewed from above, the strongest horizontal divergence takes place in the-------quadrant.

left front

The average winder location of the polar front jet stream is

southern United States.

The average summer location of the polar front jet sream is

southern Canada

The southern oscillation

is linked to the development of El Nino.

In the Northern Hemisphere, Ekman transport of surface ocean waters is about ------- of the surface wind direction.

90 degress to the left of

Upwelling

brings cold bottom water to the ocean surface, is the long-term average condition off the northwest coast of South America, is suppressed during El Nino, supports important fisheries.

Along the California coast, upwelling occurs when winds blow from the

south

An extreme and persistent El Nino

may be accompanied by weather extremes in various parts of the world.

During "neutral" condition, sea surface temperatures are highest in the ----- tropical Pacific.

western

La Nina -------- follows El Nino.

sometimes.

In equal volumes, which one of the following air masses exerts the highest surface air pressure.

Arctic

In summer, at the same pressure, maritime tropical air is-------continental tropical air.

less dense than

A source region for maritime tropical air is

the Gulf of Mexico

A warm and humid air

mT maritime tropical

At teh same pressure, which one of the following air masses is least dense?

maritime tropical

At the same pressure, which one of the following air masses is most dense in winter?

arctic

Of the following air masses, which one exhibits the greatest temperature changes between winter and summer

continental polar

Usually air mass modification is most rapid when

continental polar air moves over bare ground.

In winter, continental plar air is----- maritime polar air.

colder than

A front is a narrow zone of transition between between air masses that contrast in

temperature, vapor pressure, or density

As a warm front approaches, clouds appear in which one of the following sequences:

cirrus, alostratus, stratus

A cloud that indicates warm air advection aloft:

cirrus

The cloud and precipitation shield associated with a cold front typicaly is------- the cloud and precipitaion shild associated with a warm front.

narrower than

A type of cloud associated with a fast-mving, well defined cold front:

cumulonimbus

Cold fronts typically travel ------- warm fronts.

faster than

The type of front formed when the leading edge of cold air merges with a warm front is known as

an occluded front.

An occluded front forms

late in the life cycle of an extra tropical cyclone.

The most common type of occlusion in the Great Lakes region is the

cold-type occlusion.

Surface air pressure drops when horizontal divergence aloft----------- horizontal convergence at the surface.

is greater than

In a mature extra tropical cyclone, fog, and drizzle are most likely to develop

in the cold air just ahead of the surface warm front.

If a weather station reports a wind shift from northeast to north and then northwest and a steady rain turning to snow flurries, the low center is most likey moving

from southwest to northeast, east of the station.

Precipitation tends to be steady and persistent in the --------sector of a mature extra tropical cyclone.

northeast

The coldest sector of a matue extra tropical cyclone is usually ------------ of the cyclone center.

northwest

The warmest sector of a mature extra tropical cyclone is usually ----------of the cyclone center.

southeast

The warmest air associated with a mature extra tropical cyclone is usually located

southeast of the low center.

What is the surface wind direction in the northwest sector of a mature extra tropical cyclone?

Northwest

Major winter storms that most directly affect central Indiana follow the ------------- cyclone track.

Colorado

Extra tropical cyclones that occur with the greatest freqeuncy over North America.

Alberta

Viewed from above, the surface wind circulation about an Alberta-type cyclone is

counterclockwise and inward

If the surface wind backs from northeast to north, Boston usually experiences

cold air advection

If the surface wind veers from east to southeast to south, Baltimore usually experiences

warm air advection.

A surface wind that backs the time indicates that you are situated on the ------side of the track of an extra tropical cyclone.

cold

Warm air advection takes place to the ---- of a ridge and to the ---- of a trough.

west, east

The relatively warm side of the track of an extra tropical cyclone

to the right of the system's forward motion.

Contrasting air masses are brought together to form fronts by the surface winds about the centers of ------------- pressure.

low

In the southwestern United States, heat (thermal) lows generally

remain stationary

An intense extra-tropical cyclones tracks up the Mississippi River Valley and passes well to the west of Chicago. As the cold front sweeps through Chicago, the wind shifts from the south to the

southwest

An example of a cold-core anticyclone is the

Siberian high.

At the center of a polar high, the horizontal pressure gradient is weak and winds are

light or calm

Nocturnal radiational cooling is most intense

at the center of an anticyclone.

When land and water are exposed to the same intensity of solar radiaiton, the land warms------ the water.

more than

At night, radiational cooling chills a land surface ---- an adjacent water surface.

more than

The time of day, when a summer sea breeze is likey to be strongest is

2 p.m.

During a lake breeze, the horizontal pressure gradient force is directed

parallel to the coastline.

The time of year when a lake breeze is most likey to develop along the Lake Michigan shoreline is

June.

The chinook wind blows done the leeward slopes of the mountain ranges and is characteristically

warm and dry.

Chinook winds

are not warm at he moist adiabatic rate, do not flow downhill under the influence of gravity, does not occur only on the windward slopes of a mountain range.

As a chinook wind is drawn down the leeward slopes of a mountain range,

the saturation vapor pressure increases.

A dust devil

may resemble a small tornado, is not linked to a cloud, typically causes little or not property damage.

A mountain breeze blows

downslope at night.

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