The triangle trade system in the Atlantic, where slaves were brought to the new world, new world products were brought to Europe, and European goods bought slaves.
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France and England in exchange for a monopoly of trade in the West Indies colonies.
Dutch West India Company
(1621-1794) Trading company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in the Americas and Africa.
In the West INdies colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century.
A privileged male slave whose job was to ensure that a slave gang did its work on a plantation.
An often difficult period of adjustment to new climates, disease environments, and work routines, such as that experienced by slaves newly arrived in the Americas.
A grant of legal freedom to an individual slave.
A slave who ran away from his or her master. Often a member of a community of runaway slaves in the West Indies and South America.
The economic system of large financial institutions such as banks, stock exchanges, and investment companies that first developed in early modern Europe. Commercial capitalism, the trading system of the early modern economy, is often disinguished from industrial capitalism, the system based on machine production.
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas tradee betweena country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country. The British system was defined by the Navigation Acts, the French system by laws known as the Exlusif.
Royal African Company
A trading company chartered by the English government in 1672 to conduct its merchants' trade on the Atlantic coast of Africa.
ught to the new world, new world products were brought to Europe, and European goods bought slaves.
The part of the Atlantic Circuit involving the transportation of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic to the Americas. Slaves were treated cruelly and were given little food and water. Most died of disease, however.
A people, language, kingdom, and empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the sixteenth century, the Muslim Songhai Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the Hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade.
An agricultural and trading people of central Sudan in West Africa. Aside from their brief incorporation into the Songhai Empire, the Hausa city-states remained autonomous until the Sokoto Calipphate conquered them in the early nineteenth century.
A powerful West African kingdom at the southern edge of the Sahara in the Central Sudan, which was important in trans-Saharan trade and in the spread of Islam. Also known as Kanem-Bornu, it endured from the ninth century to the end of the nineteenth.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Suleiman the Magnificent
(1494-1566) The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire; also known as Suleiman Kanuni, "The Lawgiver." He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
"Selection" in Turkish. The system by which boys from Christian communities were taken by the Ottoman state to serve as Janissaries.
(1718-1730) Last years of the reign of Ottoman sultan Ahmed III, during which European styles and attitudes became briefly popular in Istanbul.
Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi'ite state.
Shi'ites are a a sect of Muslims belonging to the brancho f Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. Shi'ism is the state religion of Iran.
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali, whom Shi'ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. In occlusion since 873, he is expected to return as a messiah at the end of time.
Shah Abbas I
(1587-1629) declared Iran's capital to be Isfahan.
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and sevnteenth centuries.
(1542-1605) Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in INdia. He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
In INdia, grants of land given in return for service by rulers of the Mughal Empire.
Members of a mainly HIndu warrior caste from northwest INdia. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married a Rajput princess.
Indian religion founded by the guru Nanak (1469-1539) in the Punjap region of northwest INdia. After the Mughal emperor ordered the beheading of the ninth guru in 1675, Sikh warriors mounted armed resistance to Mughal rule.
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641.
Arab state based in Musqat, the main port in the southwest region of the Arabian peninsula. Oman succeeded Portugal as a power in the western Indian Ocean in the eighteenth century.
Bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa.
Fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in INdonesia; today the city of Jakarta.