Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world
Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722.
Established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after the rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered area of Balkans, legaly slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century
Ottoman equivalent of the Abbasid wazir, the chief administrative official. They were the head of the Ottoman bureaucracy. After the fifteenth century they were often more powerful than the sultan.
Sail al- Din
Early 14th century Sufi mystic; began campaign to purify Islam; first member of Safavid dynasty
name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear
Sufi conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor
Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire.
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms within Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
According to Shi'ism, rulers who could trace descent from the succesors of Ali.
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders within the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to convert all of population to Shi'ism
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah's plan; example of Safavid architecture.
Nadir Khan Afshar
Soldier-adventurer following the fall of the Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom
Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restore Mughal rule in 1556; died shortly thereafter.
Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
Din- i- Ilahi
Religioun initiated by Akbar in MughalIndia; blended elements of the many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India, but failed
Son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military successes; died in 1707
Most famous architectural acheivement of Mughal India; originally built as a mausoleum for the wife of Shah Jahan, Mumtaz Mahal
Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal Empire during later years of Jahangir's reign
Wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal
Western Indian peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in the 18th century