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body weight is stable when average daily energy intake and output are equal.

True

Gut-brain peptides are secreted by the brain and target the gastrointestinal tract.

False

_____ are short term regulators of appetite. Whereas ____ is a long-term regulator.

Peptide YY (PYY) and Cholecystokinin (CCK); Insulin

Macronutrients include

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water.

___ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas ___ yield about 9 kcal/g.

Proteins and Carbohydrates; fats

Most carbohydrates in the body are found in.

Muscular tissue

Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following except.

amino acids

lipid functions include all of the following except

forming skeletal muscle fibers.

____ constitutes the so-called "bad cholesterol."

low-density lipoprotiens

which is the healthiest ratio?

High HDL; Low LDL

HDL comes from

Liver

Protiens are associated with all these functions except...

serving as cofactors for enzymes

Most protein in the body is found in

the muscular system.

which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen balance?

Patients with muscle atrophy

High-quality_____proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids.

complete

vitamin_____deficiency is the most common worldwide

A (retinol)

____is a product of glycolysis

Pyruvic acid

which of these processes is essential for all of the rest to happen?

Glycolysis

______happens in the cytoplasm, whereas______happens in the mitochondrion.

Glycolysis; the citric acid (krebs) cycle

Oxygen

is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.

the syntheses of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called

gluconeogenesis.

_____is a product of aerobic respiration.

Carbon dioxede

most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by

the citric acid cycle

glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to______ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces_____

38; 2

which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?

Glycogen

THe inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein_____, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called_____.

ATP synthesis; the chemiosmotic mechanism

most of body's fat is stored as

triglycerides

Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called

beta oxidation

incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces______, which might lead to______

ketone bodies, acidosis

Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield

129 ATP

the highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the

intestinal mucosa

the first step in using amino acids as fuel is to _____them.

deaminate

The liver performs all of the following functions except

secretion of digestive enzymes

what metabolic process produces ammonia

deamination of glutamic acid

the liver does not

produce insulin and glucagon.

during the postabsorptive state

glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis.

during the absorptive state

gluconeogenesis is suppressed.

_______ is secreted during the postabsorptive state.

growth hormone

______does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR)

Starvation

the basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person

first rises in the morning

people on weight-loss diets often lose weight quickley at first, but then more slowly. this is for all the following reasons except.

the initial weight loss is mostely fat.

fats should account for about_____ percent of the daily caloric intake

30

Glycogenesis is stimulated by_____, and glycogenolysis is stimulated by_____.

insulin; glucagon and epinephrine

only approximately_____% of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat.

40

During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body.

does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first

a nude body at a room temp. of 21 degrees celsius (70 degrees F) loses most of its heat by

radiation

the loss of body heat by conduction cab be enhanced by

convection.

the quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is

cutaneous vasodilation

shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of

ATP hydrolysis

heat exhaustion results from

extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat.

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