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4 basic shapes of bones

Irregular bone
Flat bone
Short bone
Long bone

Irregular bone

Bones of varying shapes and sizes

Examples (vertebrae and certain bones of the skull or pelvis)

Flat bone do...? Examples?

Thin bones that protect certain organs,

Examples (most of the bones of the skull as well as the scapula)

Short bone

Bones shaped somewhat like cubes that facilitate flexibility of the joints

Examples (wrist and ankle)

Long bone

Elongate bone to which powerful muscles are attached

(Examples: leg and arm)

Two types of bone tissue and what do they have in common

Compact tissue and Cancellous tissue

They both contain living cells that help make repairs if a bone is broken or injured

Compact Tissue

Harder, outer tissue of the bone.

Examples: muscles, ligaments, tendons

Cancellous tissue

The sponge like tissue inside bone

Examples: bone marrow stores fat/produces blood cells

Bone tissue types (four type)

Cartilage,
Marrow,
Compact bone,
Spongy bone

Function of skeleton

Support our skin/give our body shape

Function of other bones

Protect/support organs make it possible to move.

Provide framework so that we can stand up and move

Bones store minerals that our body need to function properly

Produce blood cels

What do muscles do to produce movement?

Muscles pull this way and that way to produce movement.

How are bones connected

joints by ligaments

How are muscles attached to bones

tendons

Where can cartilage be found

between bones and joints

How do bones move

muscles move bones by pulling on them, cannot push, muscles come in pairs, one muscle pulls the bone one way, paired muscle pulls the other way

There types of bone connections

1. Rigidly connected
2. Joined by rubbery cartilage
3. Flexibly linked by muscular or ligamentous joints

3 major functions of the bones

1. Support shape of body
2. Movement
3. Protection of delicate parts

Axial Skeleton

Made up 80 bones in upper body

examples: skull, hyoid, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, arms and shoulders

Appendicular Skeleton

bones in arms, shoulders, hips and legs.
Made up of libs or appendages, two arms and two legs, pelvis right and left shoulders.

Arms hang from shoulders and legs attached to hips.

Skeletons can move easily because (2 things)

it consists of many bones connected by flexible joints

Joints are kept together by (two things)

elastic straps called ligaments and a smooth flexible tissue called cartlage

Cartilage

covers and joins the ends of the bones

Muscles attached to bones by?

other tough elastic straps or bands, called tendons

During movement, when muscles contract...

ropelike tendons pull bones into new positions

Fixed joints (two examples)

allow little or no movement

Examples: skull and pelvis

Pivot joint

one bone rotates in a ring of a bone that doesn't move

examples: neck and forearm

Ball and socket joint

A rounded end that fits into a cuplike cavity

Examples: shoulder, hips

Hinge joint:

Has back and forth movement like a door.

Examples: Elbows, knees, fingers

Gliding joint

One part of a bone slides over another bone

Examples: spine, ankle, wrist

Main joints (five)

Gliding joint
Fixed joint
Hinge joint
Ball and Socket joint
Pivot joint

5 Components of fitness

Cardiovascual fitness
Muscular strength
Muscular Endurance
Flexibility
Body composition

Cardiovascular fitness

Ability of the heart, lungs and vascular system to deliver blood to working muscles

Examples: Running, swimming

Muscular Strength

Amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against a heavy resistance.

Examples: Pushups, sit ups

Muscular Endurance

Ability of a muscle or muscle group to repeat a movement many times or to hold a position for an extended period of time.

Examples: Running, rowing, swimming

Flexibility

The degree to which an individual's muscles will lengthen

Examples: Stretching

Body composition

Body composition is the amount of fat in the body compared to the amount of lean mass

Examples: Muscle, bones, etc. BMI

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